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Urticaria or Hives is a condition which presents itself on skin with welts and weals (red elevated bumps) typically lasting for few hours to days and then changing location, which are usually( not necessarily always) itchy burning and stinging in nature.

Hives can be Allergic or Non Allergic in nature that is Hives with Immunoglobin involvement(allergic) and Hives without Immunoglobulin involvement (non allergic) that is no allergen-antibody interaction.
It is  caused due to response of immune system to certain stimulus in susceptible individuals. Such stimulus can be of various types and nature.


FOOD – Allergy to food item is one of the common cause to urticaria. Food items commonly known to cause urticaria are Nuts, Shell Fish, Brinjal, Tamrind, Tomato, Channa dal, Wheat, Soyabean.

ENVIRONMENTAL AGENTS – Individuals allergic to certain environmental agents of the place they reside or work if comes in to inhalation or in contact to skin may cause urticaria or hives. Some are even sensitive to photons or solar light and heat where as some individuals to water and cause aquanergic urticaria which in most cases is not histamine mediated

MEDICINES – Allergies to certain medicines especially Penicillin, Clotrimazole, Codiene, Dextroamphetamine, Aspirin, Ibuprofen, Sulphonamide, Sulphonylurea, cefclor, Piracetam.

INFECTIONS – Viral, Bacterial, Parasites, Protozoal, Fungal, Dermatophytes etc infection can cause urticaria during the course of infection or post infection. Worms, Lice, Dental Carries and Ear Infections may also  urticaria cause urticaria.

THERMAL – Its observed that many individuals develop urticarial rash with 20 hours after exposure to excess of heat or cold

CHOLINERGIC – Triggered on perspiration due to exercise, hot bathing, hot climate, emotional stress etc.

PROPRIOCEPTIVE – There are two types in this, one is pressure induced and other is dermographic urticaria, in pressure induced the wheal are more thicker and elevated and appear few hours after the pressure and lasts for 6hrs to 3 days whereas indermographic urticaria it appears much sooner is not much elevated or thick compared to former.

EXERCISE – Induced after intense Exercise may result into death in some severe cases who shos respiratory and cardiac sptoms along with, its different from cholinergic as individauls suffering from it has no relation to perspiration pattern and is not induced due to hot bath emotional stress like in cholinergic type.

EMOTIONAL – Triggers purely due to emotional stress with no relation to perspiration like in cholinergic.

SCOMBROID – Ingestion of Excess of histamine through food eg diseased fish with excess of histamine in it.

IDIOPATHIC – Cause most of the cases of urticaria remains unknown.

Pathogenesis of Urticaria


Each and every detail of all systems and a proper history of patient to evaluate and exclude certain factors like –

1)Whether patient is on any medicines. If he is, then since how long he is on that medicine. Whether those medicines are for chronic condition or recent acute complaint. Whether there is any recent change or addition of any medicine, in those who are on long-term medicines for chronic condition. eg Glimipride in Diabetes Mellitus patient. history of drug allergy. Sometimes drug allergies presenting as mild urticaria initially, might soon trigger up, in no time and can prove fatal, even before we can treat it

2)Exclude presence of Infections in past / recent past / current, as many infections may cause urticaria during its course or after it has run its course, as a reactive response of immune system. It can be either viral, fungal, bacterial, protozoal, dermatophyte or parasite infection. Parasite infection can be external like Lice or internal worm or helminthic manifestation to which body might show urticaria as reaction. Sometimes chronic Ear Infections and Dental Carries patients show up urticaria as reaction.

3)Make a careful note of, recent Consumption or Exposure or Contact atleast from 48hrs before untill his complaint started or triggered, of the following

  • A list of food items and should be done for every subsequent episode to rule out or find out allergy to particular food items.
  • A list of thing that comes in contact of skin or respiratory and other mucous membrane should be made, Change in cosmetic and toiletries like soaps, creams, lipsticks, eyeliners, oils etc. Fabrics new garments, undergarments, bands, scarfs, bed-sheets, pillow etc. Aerosols like room fresheners, insecticidal spray, recently done pest control, perfumes, deodorants, mouth fresheners etc. Jewelries and other accessories note of various materials that comes in contact with surface of skin.
  • Presence of pets, pests or rodents, bed bugs etc in patience close surroundings .
  • Presence of flowering plants with pollen in house or in garden.
  • Exposure to pollution at work place or unusual environmental exposures.
  • A note of trigger after exposure to extremes of Heat or Cold,
  • Relation with Emotion Stress or
  • Urticaria trigger due to exercise Exercise with respiratory or cardiac symptoms frequently tends to fatal.
  • Relation to sunlight exposure should be noted
  • Any change in place of residence or work should be noted
  • Change in source of water should be noted.

Guidines as per my clinical experience of Homeopathy in cases of Urticaria in Discussion format.

Personally for me, Urticaria cases are too interesting, as these patients human-organism/ Vital force/immune-system is too sensitive to certain stimulus. Shows very quick reaction and same applies to susceptibility and reaction to well selected similimum remedies. You dont have to wait much to realise the effect of doses you have given, they will show quick aggravations even if u have reached a nearby similimum remedy and even if its a chronic case.

The human-organism and vital reactions are so much eager to express themselves from within outwards, that they come up not only on skin but also with various mental symptoms, opening up after medicine is administered. Usually when urticaria resolves with homeopathy it takes away, along with, many other psychological skin respiratory and digestive disturbances.

In homeopathy, while treating case of urticaria, we should keep in mind that its a deep seated constitutional complaint. Even if it is acute and recent we have to be cautious as we can never say wether patient will go into chronic phase or not. These patients have high susceptibility towards certain stimulus and most paients are constantly being troubled by continious stumulus so considering these two important aspect of disease pathology, accordingly the medicine and potency and repetition should be selected so that we are able to create very similar artificial medicinal disease (aggravation) in such patient.

Usually these patients wether acute or chronic are most of the time psoric in maismatic nature and doesnt require antisyphillitic or antipsycotic remedies unless they have urticaria as secondary to syphillitic or psycotic constitution type, which can be evaluated by physical generals with signs of such miasmatic presentation.

Low to medium  potency with frequent repetition initially, patient within couple of days or weeks will show aggravations moderate to severe, at this point patient should be switched to placebo. Patient should be guided to bear with it and not to succumb to anti-allergic, anti-histaminic allopathic medicines for temporary relief, as it will completely disrupt the chain of event that been set in by homeopathic medicine and bring patient to ground zero again. In such case where patient has taken allopathic medicine to relieve itching and other complaints, a physician should wait for next aggravation get new case taking done and new indicated similimum medicine delivered.

When patient are guided not to take allopathic medicines for urticarial aggravations they need to be alerted and observed that they are not developing any complications in respiratory or any other vital organ or system due to aggravation. If doubted, required measures to be taken soon.

Gradually after lasting for couple of weeks the aggravations starts subsiding. In very few cases it relapses again but every subsequent episode is milder and symptom free interval longer compared to previous *. And this is how it phases off and gets completely annihilated.

(*Acute similimum medicines to be restarted on every such subsequent episode untill symptoms aggravated and then switched to placebo.)

Urticaria – 10 best Homeopathic Medicines

(Only Theraputic Indications)

  1. Natrum Sulphuris – Urticaria in patients with liver affections, Hives alternates or accompanies gouty affections, Gouty diathesis, Hydrogenoid constitution, typically suited to Psycotic Maismatic backgroung with tendency towards warty overgrowth, Complaints aggravates when climate changes from dry to damp, arthritis of small joints of toes and fingers accompanies with urticarial eruptions, pruritus aggravates on undressing, lying on left side and music, patient feels better in dry climate pressure and changing position frequently.
  2. Ledum Pal Urticaria in patients with rheumatic diathesis and Gouty diathesis, sensation of severe itching burning and sticking like from insect bite, complaints aggravate from heat of bed and covering, in pt with tetanic convulsions accompanying urticarial rash, eruptions more on ankle and feet especially rt side.
  3. Urtica Urens again this remedy is good for patients with Gouty Diathesis, Hives accompanies or alternates joint affections, urticaria relapses same time every year. Hives accompanies with catarrhal conditions, Urticarial eruptions burning heat violent itching and formication, complaints arising from suppressed nettle rash, suits well in Urticaria Nodosa and Dermographic Urticaria, patients having urticaria with angio-neurotic oedema have responede well to this remedy.
  4. Apis Melifica this remedy has a special affinity towards skin and mucous membranes where there is oedematous swelling due to innate immune response, inflamation, this remedy is made from poison of honey bee sting , and it is homoeopathically used to cure any skin , mucous membrane and any other connective tissue inflamatory affections showing symptoms and sensation as of from bee sting also urticaria showing similar symptoms and has very promising symptoms; typically the symptoms have an acute onset with severe burning and stinging pain with red rosy hue. sudden puffing up of whole body worse by heat touch motion afternoon colsed warm room on sleeping affects right side more compared to left side.pt finds relief in open air cold climate on uncovering.
  5. Belladonna Smooth shinny dry and hot skin due to subcutaneous congestion and dilation of superficial blood vesseles, urticarial rashes accompanies with fever with complete thirstlessness and head perspiring.
  6. Rhus Toxicodendron red swollen with intense itching and burning, aggravates on cold damp wether , at night during sleep, better in dry warm wether.
  7. Ranunculus Bulbosus Hives with severe itching on palms, itching palms with or without eruptions, aggravates on wet stormy wether.
  8. Natrum Muriaticum Hives due to Hyperacidity and other Digestive disturbances.
  9. Kreosotum  Hives due to dental carries
  10. Santonine Hives due to worms

LOOSE MOTION DIARRHOEA Homeopathic Medicines

Loose Motion -10 Best Homoeopathic medicines

  1. Holarrhena Antidysentrica since ancient times in ayurveda is well regarded as a very good herb to cure amoebic dysentry, its now also comes in homoeopathic mother tincture form, theraputically its giving same benefits to patients with loose motion / Diarrhoea / Amoebic Dysentry.
  2. Elaterium Officinarium Profuse Frothy Olive Green Watery forceful spurting diarrhoea with nausea and vomiting cutting gripping pain in abdomen, patient may or may not have fever with loose motion, fever typically presents with chills that typically sets in with Yawning and Stretching with darting pain in extremities.
  3. Blumia Odorata no homoeopathic proving of this drug has been done till date but its ben used since centuries in ayurveda since centuries with great results for its antiheamorrhagic and antidysentric properties same when incorporated in homoeopathic mother tincture forms yields same results; typically indicated in diarrhoea and dysentry with much blood mixed in stools, also a very usedful remedy in heamorrhagic piles/fissures/fistulas  caused due to frequent acrid corossive loose motion with much tenesmus.
  4. Magnesia Carbonica Green frothy watery stools looks like scumb over the frog pond  with bloody mucous, patient has borborygmy and heavy downward pressive and gripping pain in abdomen more pronounced in right illiac fossa, before and during passing stools, cant tolerate milk in any form passes undigested with sour odour and has to exert a lot while passing, especially in pediartric cases. fever may accompany with diarrhoea or dysentrt and patient has sour smelling sweating during fever.
  5. Alfa Alfa very useful in patient having painful frequent loose yellow stools with much flatulence, it promotes absorption nutrients and fuilds thus helps solidification and formation of stools if given in material doses in mother tincture form.
  6. Abrotanum Ravenous hunger with lienteric stools with undigested food particles seen in stools, bloody dysentry, patient eats well still looses flesh, well suited to patients with PEM Protein Energy Malnutrution like MARASMUS and KWASHIORKER where patient has pot-belly abdomen and and very thin limbs, well suited to patient having diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome secondary to gouty diathesis or rheumatism.
  7. Aethusa Cynapium typically suited to nursing children Summer Diarrhoea,  Diarrhoea Due To Dentition, diarrhoea with much projectilevomitting in infants curd like diarrhoea ; diarrhoea associated with epileptic attack. Cant tolerate milk. diarrhoea during cholera in infants.
  8. Jatropha Curcas loud borborygms with pain in right hypochondrium and below right scapula, cramps in limbs and abdomen, with cold feeling and cold body, DIARRHOEA  – Profuse Rice-Watery Diarrhoea with sudden forceful evacuation giving out loud sound right from abdomen to outside as if wateris gushing out forcefully from a bung-hole,  diarrhoea due to supressed measles
  9. Podophyllum Peltatum Diarrhea aggravated in morning with fever, Pain only in liver region otherwise painless ammelioration on lying on stomach, borborygmy with GERD nausea and vomittimg, thirst for large quantity of cold water, burning in tongue broad large and moist tongue, profuse watery stools or jelly like, polychromatic but mostly greenish, good remedy for cholera infantum and diarrhoea during dentition and diarrhoea during pregnancy in women with lax pelvic muscles supporting ligaments and tendency towards prolapse of uterus and rectum,diarrhoea  aggravated after hot drinks, hot water bath , hot climate , summer diarrhoea, general prostration after diarrhoea.
  10. Nuphar Luteum Diarrhoea during typhoid, yellow morning diarrhoea with much remittent fever headaches and general weakness and prostration.

CONSTIPATION cure in Homoeopathy


Constipation homoeopathic treatment requires a careful note of other digestive system disorders, patients dietary and exercise habbit, water and fluid consumption throughout the day, and addiction to any types of nerve stimulants like tea coffee tobacco etc.

A careful note of type of constitution and body make up is required with miasmatic background , history of various illnessess and medication should be ask about.

In homoeopathic remedy selection for constipation it is important to make note of character of stool and any peculiar pain or sensations for individualisation of case and repertorisation for similimum remedy selection.

  1. Collinsonia Obstinate with no stools for days together, dry hard stools with pricking sensation while passing stools , which causing heamorrhoids, this remedy should be thought of in constipation of children with itching in anus and in women with dysmenorrhoea or during pregnancy.
  2. Bryonia Alba Dry hard large thick dark brown knotty stools as if burnt, typical stitching pain while passing stools, constipation due to dryness of mucous membranes, Constipation in summer season calls for this remedy, it typically suits to constitutions who are robust with firm lean muscular fibers dark complexion and right sided affections aggravated in summer and ammeleorated in cold wether.
  3. Nux Vomica incomplete unsatisfactory bowel clearance, frequent ineffectual urge to pass stools,this medicine is contradicted if patient has no desire or urge for stool, irregular peristalsis, constant uneasiness of rectum due to frequent urge for stools, Constipation due to side effects of homoeopathic medicines, constipation in persons having stressful sedentary lifestyle with habbit of frequent stimulants like tea cofee tobacco opium etc, night watching, constitutionally this subjects typically have irritable temperament ,short tempered gets angry soon and are lured by wine and women, Zealous fiery temperament, predominantly a male remedy.
  4. Hydrastis Canadensis constipation due to slugish liver functions and gallbladder affections, sluggush nerves need for stimulants for urge to pass stools, smarting pain in rectum while passing stools, all gone empty sinking sensation in abdomen with constrictions and spasms berore and during passing stools.
  5. Natrum Muriaticum Chronic constipation in person with hyperacidity, earthy complexion with lean thin emaciated body great craving for salt, ailments due to grief anger irritability , resentment , excess salt intake for prolonged period, cutting and gripping pain in abdomen before and during passing stools, constipation with cuts and ulcers on lips and corner of mouth.
  6. Chelidonium Majus constipation due to affections of liver and gall bladder, obstructive jaundice, and sluggish intestinal motility, stools hard and in round balls , like sheep’s dung, pasty clay coloured , stools floats on water, burning and itching in rectum during and after passing stools.
  7. Causticum Child can pass stools only while in standing position, Stool soft and small size like of Goose-quill or hard tough envoloped in mucous giving it greasy shiny appearance has to strain a lot due to partial oeresis of rectum.
  8. Anacardium Orientale Plug like sensation in anus, spasmodic contractions of spincter ani with lack of control and pawer on spincter ani, ineffectual urge to pass stools.
  9. Aletris Farinosa aversion to food, few mouth fill causes fullness of abdomen nausea and bilious vomitting, hyperacidity,  dyspepsia , severe constipation with  flatulent colic,  hard large stool pain and difficulty to pass stools due to paralytic condition of rectum with lots of stools lodged inside,
  10. Alumina Dry Hard knotty stools initially then followed with soft stools, no urge to pass stools and if at all there is urge to pass its painful, has to strain a lot to pass stools due to anal paretic condition causing soreness dryness and congestion with bleeding from rectum, especially in old people and infants and person suffering from chronic low dose aluminium poisoning due to cooking food in aluminumium utensils.


ABDOMINAL PAIN Homeopathic Medicines

HAIRFALL -10 Best Homoeopathic Medicines


Hairfall has multiple causes and each cause needs to be attended

A careful history needs to be taken and case needs to be taken to note down the following factors

  • Life style including diet exercise rest use of cosmetics
  • Life situations
  • Climate and Environment of the region where patient resides
  • Hormonal imbalances
  • Automimmune conditions
  • Chronic diseases
  • History of communicable diseases
  • History of longterm medication
  • Family History and hereditary factors

Based on which we will be able to evaluate all the major factor involved and help us prepare line of treatment and selection of medicines

It is always advised that one should always select homoeopathic medicines as per Homoeopathic principles for best results.

Although there are certain medicines which can be generalised and given in almost any case with reasonably good results without side effects.

Below are few such medicines with simplified note for their selection as when they are called for.

  1. Arnica Montana Promotes hair growth if applied locally can be mixed in coconut oil and massaged locally on scalp on daily basis.
  2. Jaborandi Promotes hairgrowth and fights dandruff can be applied on scalp on daily basis.
  3. Selenium hairfall due to dandruff and hormonal imbalance
  4. Acidum Hydroflouricum hair lossdue to exudating eruptions on scalp and sensitive scalp
  5. Lycopodium male pattern baldness
  6. Acidum Phosphoricum Hair loss due to depressing emotions
  7. Acidum Nitricum Hair loss with severe folliculitis with burning sensation on scalp
  8. Kalium Carbonicun dryness of hair and scalp causing hairloss
  9. Natrum Muriaticum Hair loss due to depressing emotions, anger resentment.
  10. Calcarea Carbonica Hair loss in fair fat flabby women who typically have tendency towards thyroid affections.

A general care needs to be taken of hair scalp diet exercise rest which will be discussed in other article, as this article is intended only to throw light on commonly used homoeopathic medicines for hairfall.


Hypothyroidism is insufficiency of thyroid hormone required for normal growth and functioning of the body.


Thyroid Hormones are produced in body only by thyroid glands , its a butterfly shaped glands situated in neck each lobe on either side of trachea connected with isthemus on midline behind hyoid bone.

T3 or tri-iodothyronine or liothyronine and T4 or thyroxine are active thyroid hormones partially composed of Iodine, so iodine is required for production of T3 and T4.

Hypothalamus releases Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone(TRH) which stimulates Pitutary glands to secret Thyroid Stimulating Hormone(TSH) which stimulates thyroid glands to produce thyroglobulin which is precursor of thyroid hormones, the residue of thyroglobulin is protien tyrosin which undergoes iodination with help of thyroperoxidase forming thyroid hormone.(1 molecule of thyroglobulin has 100-120 residual tyrosin of which only 20 undergoes iodination with help of thyroperoxidase in follicular colloid and rusultant formation of upto 10 thyroid hormone molecule from 1 thyroglobulin molecule.)Hypothalamo-pitutary-thyroid axis regulates levels of thyroid hormone in blood, increased level of T3 and T4 inhibibits TSH and TRH. Thus regulating proper balance of blood level of thyroid hormone.

T4 is converted into T3 with help of Deiodinases , these Deiodinases are Selenium based compounds, So sufficient selenium is required for production of T3 , its then converted into T1a (iodothyronamine)and T0a (thyronamine) by decarboxylation and  deiodination.

In blood almost 99.97% thyroxine is bound to Thyroxine binding globulin only free thyroxine is biologically active.

Thyroid hormones helps in protien, fat and carbohydrate metabolism and stimulates vitamin metabolism. It is essential for proper development and differentiation of cells, it influences almost each and every cell bt binding with thyroid hormone receptor on neucleus of cells and it activates gene to express cell specific protiens to neucleus of the body and on cell membrane it attaches to integrin αvβ3 stimulating sodium-hydrogen anti-porter and activating processes like cell growth and formation of blood vessels. it also helps in maturation of neurons and bone growth, it promotes catecholeamines sensitivity.

Regulation of thyroid hormone levels is influenced by many different physiological and pathological stimulus.


  1. Defective Thyroid Gland itself , functioning inadequately, its called Primary Hypothyroidism. It is caused due to Iodine Deficiency, autoimmune Thyroiditis like Hashimato’s Thyroiditis where auto antibodies are driven against Thyroglobulin, Thyroxine peroxidase, TSH receptors which infilterate thyroid glands, post partum thyroiditis, subacute lymphocytic thyroiditis, subacute granulomatous thyroiditis, certain medications , radio-iodine procedure, thyroidectomy.
  2. Lack of sufficient stimulus by Thyroid stimulating Hormone (TSH), which is secreted from pitutary glands, it is called Secondary Hypothyroidism.
  3. Inadequate Thyroid Releasing Hormone(TRH), which is secreted from Hypothalamus, its called Tertiary Hypothyroidism.

A person can suffer from one or above all three types of causes of hypothyroidism.

Central Hypothyroidism,  any hypothyroidism which can be classified under Secondary or Tertiary cause is termed as Central Hypothyroidism, their causes are any lesions compressing the pitutary, injury to  pitutarty due to surger or other reasons , pitutary irradiation, certain drugs influencing pitutary, vascular disorders affecting pitutary, intracranial heamorrhages, certain autoimmune diseases like lymphocytic hypophysitis, certain infiltrative diseases, infection and congenital disorders.


  • Fatigue , patient gets tired easily, frequently complaints of aching sensation in limbs and very occasionaly complaints of sensation of trembling of limbs
  • Somnolence, sleepy feeling throughout the day and Insomnia, cant get proper sleep at night
  • Weakness and lethargy, pt complaints of general weakness and lack of interest to do any physical activity.
  • Coldness, cold feet and hands , slightly lower body temperature, cant tolerate cold climate.
  • Dry thick and coarse skin
  • Hoarseness in voice
  • Tendency to catch cold easily
  • Lack of concerntration and weak memory
  • Depression, lack of interest , gloomy and melancholic.
  • Delayed cycles with initial heavy flow and later very scanty flow.
  • Oedematous swelling of limbs and face
  • Myxedema
  • Hearing deteriorates
  • Slow Pulse Rate
  • Carpel Tunnel Syndrome
  • Delayed Tendon Relaxation Reflexes.


Blood test

T4 and TSH levels helps diagnose the condition

  • Low T4 and elevated TSH suggests Hypothyroidism
  • Low T4 and normal/low  TSH suggests Hypothyroidism of central origin.
  • Normal T4 and elevated TSH suggests Subclinical Hypothyroidism.

T3 levels are just extra parameter and should not be considered primary parameter, according to current guidelines T4 and TSH levels are considered first and T3 is used for extra guidance.

In many cases, patient shows signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism but their FT3 FT4 and TSH levels are absolutely normal in such cases antithyroglobulin and anti TPO antibodies test should be done to rule out Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis.


Based on symptoms and condition.


Thyroidinum is a polcrest remedy with a wide sphere of action. Thyroidinum is a sarcode prepared from dried thyroid gland of the sheep or calf. It influences all the other systems of the body. Thyroidinum is used to treat various symptoms of hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism is usually causex due to deficiency of tbyroid hormone. Patient usually presents with general and muscular weakness, easy fatigue, mood changes, obesity, digestive disturbances. Tendency for obesity. Very good remedy for menstrual disorders like menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, amenorrhoea. Arrested mental and physical development. Fatigue, marked weakness, poor concentration.


Iodum is generally known as iodine, a non metallic trace element required by our body. Iodine has multiple functions in our body. Deficiency of iodine in human body leads to several symptoms. Iodum is a very useful remedy in case of thyroid disorders. Patient usually presents with dry skin, hair loss,, feeble muscles, puffed up face and swollen tbyroid glands. Mental and physical lethargy, weight gain. Severe exhaustion and fatigue. Ravenous hunger, eats well yet losses flesh all the time. Anxiety with increased palpitations. Great debility, slightest effort endures perspiration.


Calcarea carb is usually suited to fair, fat, flabby persons who are always chilly and cannot tolerate cold air. Calcarea carb is Very well indicated in hypothyroidism. Excessive sweatinv on head is a leading symptom for its use in hypothyroidism patients. Feels overworked or exhausted. Forgetful, confused, misplaced and expresses herself wrongly. Women with hypothyroidism have too early, too profuse menses with vertigo. Recomended in obese patients. Pecularities in eating like craving for boiled egg. Desire for indigestible things. Presents with constipation, first part of stool hard followed by soft stools.


Bromium is a deep acting remdy indicated in case of Hypothyroidism. Suited to people with flax hair, light blue eyes, fajr individuals. Tendency to cause induration and enlargement of glands. Patient is very anxious, apprehensive with great depression of spirits. Glandular swelling, stony hardnesd of glands. All glands are affected thyroid, parotid, submaxillary, ublingual etc. The thyroid gland may bulge at one side and may be so hard as to restrict the movement. Presents with emaciation, general weakness and perspiration. Limbs are weak and tremble with growing prostration. Presents with chronic fatigue syndrome. Another important symptom of bromium is its indication of respiratory ailments especially in asthama in sailors as they go ashore.


Selenium is one of the indicated remedy in case of hypothyroidism. Presents with marked mental and physical weakness.Great fatigue from which he seems unable to recuperate from rest. Sudden weakness in hot weather. Dry hacking cough with weak feeling in chet. Weak spine as if paralysed. He is sleepless till midnight, awakens early and always at the same hour. Severe hairfall. Constipation with inactivity of rectum.


Apocyanum cannabinum is an efficient remedy in case of hypothyroidism. Useful in dropsies. General dropsies with or without disease. Swelling of every part of body. Presents with great weakness. Low spirited, nervous. The skin feels husky and rough. Great proatration. Presents with great oppression about epigatrium with difficult breathing. Gasping for breath. In females metrorrhagia with paroxysmal flow.


Bufo is usually suited to feeble minded children and prematurely senile people. Bufo is a deep acting antisporic remedy. Main sphere of action is on glands, skin, CNS, mind. Useful in hypothyroidism. Patient is usually sad , restless, feeble minded, idiotic childish, impatient child. Inclination to bite. Presents with marked swelling of body. In female the menses are too early and too copious with clots. Weak memory, desires solitude.


Nerve fibres originating from L4-S3 unites in front of piriformis muscle to form the widest single nerve in human body called the SCIATIC NERVE. Myalgia Paraesthesia in the corresponding region of supply of the Sciatic Nerve is termed as SCIATICA.

This symptom can be due to compression of /injury to /pathology of Sciatic Nerve or its nerve fibre origin.

Compression/Injury/ Pathology can be due to trauma / mechanical wear and tear / pathological changes around sciatic nerve or at origin of its fibres at lumbar and sacral region.


  • Lumbar Spondylosis
  • Spinal Stenosis
  • Spinal Disc Herniation
  • Degenerated Vertebra
  • Sciatic Nerve Surrounding Muscle Spasms
  • Sciatic Nerve Surrounding Tissue Inflamation
  • Deep Tissue Abscess Around Sciatic Nerve
  • Fetal Weight During Pregnancy
  • Piriformis Syndrome
  • Tumours in and around Sciatic Nerve
  • Injury During Surgical Procedures


Patients presenting with pain along nerve path; should be tested for straight leg raise test

Further imaging tests CT, MRI, MRneurography helps to find out exact cause

Person should also be tested for any deficiency of Calcium through Bone Mineral Density ; Vitamin D levels where sciatica is due to bony degeneration or osteoarthritis of lumbar spine or osteoporosis in general.

Vitamin B12 levels should also be tested

In patients with sciatica due to spinal complaints originated from mechanical reasons

Secure lower back(lumbosacral region) and give it proper rest; mild exercises not involving lumbo-sacral region; helps by not involving lower back but still maintaining healthy equilibrium of body thus helping faster recovery.

Spinal manipulation helps to an extent in disc related pain which is contraindicated in progressive neurological deficits

Patients with sciatica due to non mechanical spinal reason / secondary to tumour / some other pathology like inflamation or abscess around; should be treated first for primary reason.

Homoeopathic Medicines for Sciatica with Indications


Magnesium phosphoricum is a great antipsoric remedy. Mag phos is a constituent of nerves, muscles, bones, spine, brain, blood corpuscles. It helps to create white fibres of muscles amd nerves. The deficiency of this salt allows the fibres to contract causing spasms, cramps and other nervous phenomenon. Magnesium phosphoricum is thought of in all maladies having origin in nerve cells and in muscle tissue. Mag phos is very well indicated in Sciatica. It is suited to tall, dark, neurotic, exhausted people. Used for neuralgic pains, having spasmodic effects and have great influence on nerves and muscles. The pains are very violent and may affect any nerve. Pain localises itself in a nerve and become worse especially in case of sciatic nerve. Pains come in paroxysms. The patient feels better in warm place where neuralgias are better. There are times when a nerve in which there is a considerable pain becomes sensitive to pressure. Stiffnness, numbness along the route of nerve from prolong exertion. Rest relieves most of the complaints.


Rhus tox is a frequently indicated remedy in rheumatic affections, and neuralgias. Rhus tox affects the fibrous tissue markedly joints, tendons, sheaths, producing pain and stiffness. Rhus tox is very useful in Sciatica. Pains usually spread over a large surface area along the route of nerve, stiffeness of limbs with paralysis. Presents with tingling in feet. Affections of nerves and spinal cord give rise to paretic effects. Symptoms appear on the eft side and go from left to right. Patient is very restless., cannot rest in one position. Complaints come on from cold damp weather aspecially to cold. Pains that run through Rhus tox are aching, tearing with numbness and paralytic weakness of limbs with loss of sensation. Presents with low back ace with stiffnness, aggravatiom on resting after excercise.


Calcarea carb is chief representative of calcium compound. Calcium metabolism is active during childhood and becomes defective in middle age. Calcarea patient can be described as fair, fat and flabby with tendency to gain weight. Calcarea carb has main action on the vegetative sphere with impaired nitrition being the keynote of its action. Calcarea carb has marked indication in case of sciatica, where there is severe pain in the lower back, lumbar spine to the buttock and down the back of leg. Excruciating pain with burning sensation. Presents with numbness tingling sensation in affected leg or foot. Associated with Weakness of extremities.


Bellis is known commonly as Wound wort, therfore like Arnica it is great traumatic remedy. Very well indicated in Sciatica. There is results of injurie to nerves with intense soreness and intolerance of cold bathing. Severe pain at the lowet back, radiatinv downwards, pains may vary widely from a mild ache to sharp burning sensation, can feel like a jolt or electric shock. Worse when you cough sneeze or due to prolong sitting aggravates the complaints. Sore bruised feeling in the pelvic region.


Hypericum perforatum is an excellent remedy for injury to parts rich in sentient nerves. Indicated in traumatic neuralgiaand neuritis.Spasms after injury.
Hypericum perforatum is considered when the sciatic pain is attended with tingling, burning and numbness in affected limb. The spine is very sensitive to touch. Walking or stooping is impossible from intense pain in back and lower limb. Aching pain in left sciatic nerve after prolonged sitting. Violent pains and inability to walk or stoop after a fall on coccyx. Excessive painfullness is the guiding symptom, associated with cramps in calves.


Arnica montana is frequently indicated remedy in case of sciatica. Patient usually presents with excessive soreness of lower limbs. Severe neuralgias with low backache and pain radiating from back through thigh to foot. Numbness and soreness after over exertion. Cannot walk erect on account of bruised pain in pelvic region. Limbs ache as if beaten. Numbness in feet. Sore lame bruised feeling all over the body, bed feels hard. Slightest tough is unbearable. Arnica is usually suited to cases when an injury however remote seems to have caused the trouble. Extreme restlessnes, patient constantly changes his position.


The sphere of action of phospahte of lime includes all neuralgic affections and bone diseases whether due to some dyscrasia or defective nutrition. Calcarea phos is One of the most important tissue remedies. Very well indicated in case of sciatica. The back pains are worse from cold stormy weather. Severe pain in the back and along the route of sciatic nerve from straining, tearing, shooting, and aching in the spine. Soreness in the sacroiliac symphysis. Pain in the lumbar region and sacrum extending to the feet.


Plantago usually affects the nerves causing nerves causing neuralgias. Patient usually presents with sharp cutting type of pain. Numbness in the affected parts. Trembling of limbs. Severe pain in the back extenxing to feet. Sharp shifting type of pains. Very useful remedy in case of sciatica.


Colocynth has a long lasting action on the nerve especially the scoatic nerve. The principle feature of colocynth is its severe tearing, neuralgic pains, pains are so severe that the patient is unable to remain still. The sciatic pains ae better feom hard pressure. Neuralgic pains are cutting, clamping, gnawing type followed by numbness and lumbar ache which is relieved by pressure. Severe pain in the back extending downwards, sensation as if heavy weight in the lumbo dorsal region lying on left side. Along with sciatica there is agonising pain in abdomen causing patient to bnd double with restlessness. Sciatic pains extend from lumbar region to limbs. Tensive lancination in lumbar region and hips especially while lying on the back. Pain while walking as if psoas muscles were too short, on stooping it caeses but commences again while walking. Usually Left sided sciatica, pain along the course of left sciatic nerve. Pain in low back radiates to toes.


Gnaphalium is an indicated medicine in sciatica, when the pain in the sciatic nerve is attended with numbness. Useful in cases of sciatica where pain is confined to calves and feet. There is intense pain in the nerve accompanied by cramps alternating with numbness. Intense pain along the route of sciatic nerve. Lumbago with numbness of parts and weight or heaviness in pelvis.


The rapidity of action of aconite determines its symptomatology. Aconite is one of the indicated remedy in sciatica. Symptoms are acute, violent and painful. They appear suddenly and remain for a short while as if a big stormwhich soon blows over. Neuralgic pains are very intense. Pain in the back. Sensation of burning, numbness, tingling, crawling semsation alon the route of nerve. Parts remain sore and numb after pains. Physical and mental restlessness with state of fear, anguish.


Belladona is very useful remedy in sciatica. Where the pains are sudden and violent with redness and heat of affected parts. Belladona acts on the nerve centres producing twitching, pains, jerks and spasms in limbs. Invluntary limping. Trembling of limbs. The lower part of the back feels as if broken. Sensation of heaviness in the buttocks and thigh. The sciatic pain is worse from heat and relieved from bending backwards and by rest. Symptoms of belladona that is pain and suffering come on suddenly pass a regular course amd subside suddenly.


Silicea is one the indicated remedy in sciatica. Presents with neurasthenic states and increased susceptibility to nervous stimuli. Sciatic pains usually start in thr back hips and run through the course of sciatic nerve through back of legs and feet. Severe cramps in calves and soles. Weak spine. Severe pain in coccyx.


Bryonia is most effective medicine for sciatica that gets worse from walking. The slightest motion may worsen sciatica., in such cases lying down absolutely still provides some relief to the patient. Heaviness in the Affected hip or leg. The general character of pain here is stitching type of pain, pains greatly aggravated by slight motion and better by rest. Usually adapted to nervous dry, alender people. Pain in small of back which becomes worse by stooping. Scaitica better by lying on painful side.


Gout is metabolically mediated type of arthritis strongly associated with genetics as a major cause, to which diet and lifestyle plays a contributory factor in its pathogenesis.It is primarily caused due to disorder of purine metabolism (purine is one of the major component of our gene it forms base pairs / nucleotides with pyrimidine to give structure to our gene; also purine is present in many food that we eat esp. certain sea food and many pulses).

Its when the final product of purine metabolism i.e uric acid, starts crystallizing and forming Monosodium Urate Monohydrate then it starts depositing in joint and tissues around joint its called gout and not mere hyperuricemia can be termed as gout.


Purine De Novo Synthesis with Salvage Pathway and GOUT
Purine De Novo Synthesis with Salvage Pathway and GOUT

Overproduction of uric acid may be due to one or more of following factors:-

  • Catabolism,
  • Loss of purine salvage mechanism,
  • Defective or sluggish transportation,
  • Under excretion of uric acid,
  •  Reduced elimination of uric acid due competition of metabolites for elimination,

which results into  hyperuricemia triggering Gout.

Although hyperuricemia has been found to trigger gout but many having maintaining uric acid within normal limits still develop gout and many having uric acid on higher side are still not developing gout. So genetics has major role in determining at what level of serum uric acid the patient may develop Gout.

When Uric acid crystalises into monosodium urate, it then starts precipitating in joints, tendons and surrounding tissues,in small clusters of deposits called tophi. Each tophus is collection of monosodium urate crystals surrounded by a protein wall. This protein wall prevents its interaction with surrounding cells and thus prevents inflamatory response. Occasionally this walled-off tophi breaks open the protein wall and so the urate crystals comes out naked in contact with surrounding cells, which may be due to medical, surgical metabolic, physical stress or sometimes even rise in serum uric acid levels may lead to breaking of this wall, which causes acute inflamation and sets in acute arthritis within few hours.


Its usually observed that small joints of extremities which are not sufficiently insulated to tolerate cold and shocks and those that are in region where circulation is affected due to gravity dependence, like great toe and ankle , small joints of feet, hands and wrist are more prone compared to other joints. Although it can affect all the joints and can present itself with different signs and symptoms but it is classically known as Podagra for the one characteristic symptom it frequently presents in most of the patients, its the intense burning and sharp excruciating pain with mild redness and swelling especially on base of great toe (at first metatarso-phalangeal joint) starting suddenly and frequently at night waking patient up from sleep.



1) Absence of gene associated with breakdown of Uric Acid.

In humans unlike other carnivorous primates(meat eater in particular) the Uricase /urate oxidase, an enzyme which breaks down uric acid to 5hydroxyisourate then to allantoin,  has became non functional during evolution phase and is present only as psuedogene/junk gene so, the humans have tendency towards probability of elevated levels of uric acid due to lack of breakdown and accumulation which may trigger gout.

Uric Acid though may have beneficial effect as its a very powerful antioxidant and scavenger, helping body to protect itself from oxidative damage and thus prolonging life and reducing age-specific cancers, so hominids may have opted out the Uricase gene in selective evolution.

After we identified urate oxidase and its activity, we have artificially prepared protien Rasburicase. Rasburicase is now used to treat patient developing acute hyperuriceamia during chemotherapy. Also a PEGylated form of urate oxidase is in clinical development for treatment of chronic hyperuriceamia having “treatment failure gout”.

2) Defect in genes associated transportation and transfer of uric acid for elimination.
  • SLC2A9 The encoded protein by this gene plays a role in transportation of uric acid and also in development and survival of chondrocytes in the cartilage matrix. Any SNP (single neucleotide polymorphism) in this gene causes transcript variants encoding different isoforms, which increases the risk of development of Hyperuriceamia and also it may alter joint cartilage matrix both of these anomaly plays a major role in formation of gout.
  • SLC22A12 has 2 transcript variants encoding different isoforms; basically it encodes urate transporter and urate anion exchanger protein which regulates the level of urate in the blood; its an integral membrane protien primarily found in kidney; SNP of this gene causes altered reabsorption of Uric Acid by the kidney.
3) Genes associated with purine salvage mechanism.
  • PRPSAP1 and HPRT1 are gene related to Purine salvage mechanism.
  • Phosphoribosyl Pyrophosphate Synthatase associated Protein 1(PRPSAP1).
  • PRPP (5-phosphoribosyl 1- pyrophosphate) is a substrate used by HGPRT during purine salvage pathway.
  • Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyl Transferase 1 (produce hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGRPT)which plays main role in generation of purine nucleotide through purine salvage pathway).

SNP or deletion of any of the above mentioned gene causes hyperuriceamia and also other severe conditions.

4)Certain Genetic Disease And Syndromes Presents Hyperuricemia And Gout As One Of The Symptom Like In  :-

  1. Familial Juvenile Hypouricemic Nephropathy (FJHN) associated with UMOD gene. UMOD gene produces Tamm horsfall protien, whose function is still not well understood but defect in this gene produce many autosomal renal disorders characterised by juvenile onset of hyperuricemia, gout and progressive renal failure.
  2. Medullary Cystic Kidney disease (type I and II).
  3. Lesch Nyham Syndrome is an X-linked Syndrome caused due to HPRT1 Gene deletion (details of HPRT1 have been mentioned elsewhere above in this page).

Physical trauma, Wasting Diseases ,Surgery are associated with increased uric acid levels.


Diuretics in higher doses, niacin, aspirin ACE inihibitors angiotensin receptor blockers  beta Blockers ritonavir pyrazineamide ciclosporin tacrolimus.


In patients with recurrent acute episodes of arthritis especially of great toe accompanying hyperuricemia is sufficient to establish the diagnosis. However an episode of acute arthritis in many instances may not accompany hyperuricemia, so arthroscentesis should be done for synovial fluid analysis for visualising monosodium urate crystals or tophus is the only confirmatory test whether patient is hyperuricemic or not.


Food rich in purine especially red meat and sea food is considered to be associated with hyperuricemia. Its found that moderate consumption of purine rich vegetarian diet is not associated with the condition. Also total protien  has no impact untill not much of it is in form of purine.

Alcohol consumption and Fructose sweetened food and drinks are strongly associated with it.

Metabolic syndrome, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and aging process are also associated with this condition and they tend to worsen each other.

Vitamin C, Coffee and switching to Dairy Products for protein requirement will also help.

Weight reduction and regular exercise helps reduce Uric acid.

Raised uric acid level is also associated with renal stones and urate nephropathy.



Arnica is a traumatic remedy par excellence. Arnica is an useful remedy in chronic cases of gout. Old cases of gout rouse into a new soreness of joints with great sensitiveness. Arnica is an important remedy in injuries, bruises, shocks etc. Trauma in all its varieties mental or physical and their effects recent or remote are met with this remedy. If we observe a arnica patient in order to get the external manifestations of his state, he is constantly moving,turning and highly restless. The patient has sore lame bruised feeling, so sore that he can lie on one part only for a while and must keep changing position as the bed he lies on feels hard. Limbs ache as if beaten. Inflamation of joints.


Actea racemosa is a very well indicated remedy in gouty and rheumatic diathesis. Swelling of joints with raised uric acid levels. Its muscular and crampy pains are primarily neurotic origin, occuring in nearly every part of the body. Pains of actea racemosa are like that of electric shock, comes suddenly and also its relieved suddenly. There is stiffness and pain in the tendo achillies. It has wide action on muscles nerves joints. Rheumatic aching pains in joints and muscles with stifness of joints. Causes depression of mind with low spirits and exhaustion along with oversensitiveness especially during pain.


Abrotanum is a very valuable remedy which is used more frequently. Indicated in gout and increased uric acid levels. Rheumatism and gout alternate with haemorrhoids. Abrotanum increases circulation and opens small arteries as a result the blood flow and local defense of joints and muscles is stimulated. Abrotanum relives gout pain.


Aconite napellus is very well indicated in rheumatic and gouty conditions of joints. Those that come on as first attack. Not old rheumatic and gouty attacks but those that come on from exposure to cold. Rapidity of action of aconite determines its symptomatology. Presents with Symptoms are acute painful and violent pain in the joints. Aconite is indicated in acute onset of pain and swelling. Used in 1st stage of inflammatory condition with severe mental restlessness. Fear. Fright and anxiety.


Belladona is useful in inflamtory rheumatism and gout.Symptoms that suggest this remedy are sudden onset, swollen joints, red hot, throbbing pain with extreme sensitiveness. Complaints of belladona that is the pains and suffering come on suddenly run a regular course and subside suddenly. Sudden attack of cold worsens the complaints.


Colchicum is a primary remedy used for treatment of gout because of its effectiveness.most useful in chronic gout.
Colchicum has marked action of the joints, indicated in case of gouty arthritis and increased uric acid levels. Helps in relieving the gouty paroxysms. Inflammation of great toe, gout in heel, cannot bear to be touched. Oedematous swelling and coldness of feet. Joints are red hot swollen. Pains are usually worse in evening and night.


Ledum pal is mostly used in rheumatic and gouty diathesis. Remedy affects the fibrous tissues of joints especially small joints, ankles,heels.Used in cases where the gouty pains shoot through the foot, limbs and smaller joints. There is great swelling in the foot and ankle. Joints hot and swollen with with cracking in joints. Gouty nodosities. Ball of great toe is swollen. Soles are very painful can hardly step on them. Aggravation from warmth is so vreat that the patient can only get relief to his rheumatism by sitting with his feet in icy cold water.


Natrum sulph is used for symptoms associated with gout it may be acute or chronic. Swelling and burning of joints. Pain compels frequent change in position with stiffness of joints. Burning in sole with oedema of feet.


Rhus tox is one of the most frequently indicated remedy for rheumatic and gouty complaints. Rhus tox usually affects the fibrous tissue markedly joints, tendons, producing pain and stiffness. Rhus plays a good role in gouty complaints. Hot painful swelling of joints. Tearning pains in tendons, ligaments and fasciae. Affects the smaller joints, parts feel sore and bruised with stiffmess. All complaints worse from cold damp weather and motion in any ailment and relieved from warmth.


Urtica is useful in rheumatic and gouty diathesis. This remedy helps in elimination of uric acid from the body. The patient has tendency to uric acid and gout formation. The joint complaints are usually associated with hive like erruptions. Presents with pain in small joints. Worse from exposure to cold moist air, wet weather.


Benzoicum Acidim is a very Specific and Infallible remedy in cases of chronic and acute gout, usually given in lower potencies in frequent repetitions.

Tophus of Gout


Large Tophus Of Gout at Dr Shah's Homoeopathy
Podagra Gout Hyperuricemia
Podagra – Inflamation of 1st Metatarsophalangeal Joint (Joint of great toe to feet) in patient with Hyperuricemiam or elevated Uric Acid. Its a classical presentation of Gout.
Podagra – Inflamation of 1st Metatarsophalangeal Joint (Joint of great toe to feet) in patient with Hyperuricemiam or elevated Uric Acid. Its a classical presentation of Gout.


Lichen Planus (LP) is believed to be autoimmune condition with an unknown causative and triggering factor. It presents itself with skin lesions characterize by 6 P’s i.e. Planar [flat topped], Purple, Polygonal, Pruritic, Papules and Plaques;
Although it may present itself with variety of other lesions as well.

The Lesions typically shows interspersed lacy white lines which are called Wicham’s Striae

It can affect anywhere on Skin Nails and Mucous membranes of any region.

The lesion may show any of the following pattern Annular, Linear, Hypertrophic, Atrophic, Bullous, Ulcerative, Pigmented.


What are the causes?

It is non contagious condition and is not related to any known pathogen; it is believed to be T-cell driven autoimmune reaction which triggers apoptosis of the epithelial cells; It is believed that this process is in response to some unidentified antigenic change in oral mucosa

What is Lichenified Reaction?

There are certain conditions where the skin lesions shows similarity with Lichen Planus lesions , in both clinical appearance to naked eye as well as histopathology under microscope but unlike Lichen Planus there are known underlying causative factors such conditions are termed lichenfied reactions.

Few examples which may cause Lichenified Reaction
  • In certatin drug reactions esp. due to beta blockers quinine thiazide diuretics furosemide spironolactone metformin and penicillin
  • Reactions to metal alloy fillings
  • Graft Versus-Host disease typically presents with chronic lichenified skin lesions on palms soles upper trunk and face after several months
  • Hepatitis ; esp due to Hepatitis B virus infection ; Hepatitis C virus infection ; primary biliary cirrhosis
  • stress and lifestyle as major impact on lichen planus it may trigger erruptions
  • lichen planus may be an accompanying symptom of Grinspan’s Syndrome


LP can be diagnosed clinically with brief history and character of skin lesions characterize by 6 P’s i.e. Planar [flat topped], Purple, Polygonal, Pruritic, Papules and Plaques; it typically has Lichen-like appearance; always Biopsy is Gold Standard to establish diagnosis.

HOMEOPATHIC Treatment Approach and Homeopathic Medicines for Lichen Planus.

Can LP be Cured?

Allopathy System has no cure the condition it can only relieve symptoms temporarily and does have side effects

Homeopathy is known system of medicines which can cure lichen planus without having any side effects



Explanation of indicated remedies on website are as follows.


Thuja has main sphere of action on the skin. Acting on the skin thuja causes painful sensitiveness of skin. Very useful remedy in case of Lichen planus. Thuja is very beneficial for inverterate skin troubles and chronic or stubborn skin conditions like lichen planus, psoriasis eczema, warts. Erruptions occur only on the covered parts of the body. The erruptions burn violently after scratching. Dry sensitive skin with hyperpigmented brown spots. Skin sensitive to touch. The skin usually looks unhealthy all over body. Aggravation of complaints usually at night from heat of bed.


Antimonium crudum is one of the indicated remedies in case of Lichen planus. Acting on the skin, causes ulcerations and has a tendency to grow warts, callosities, bad nails. Hard horny excrescences grow under the nails and is extremely painful. Pustular erruptions with inflammation. Itching especially on the neck, chest, back and limbs. Erruptions chiefly appear in the evening which itch in the heat of bed and disturb sleep. Formation of thick, hard scabs with oozing. Deformed nails. Degeneration of skin. Burning and itching worse scratching at night.


Calcarea flour is a powerful tissue remedy. Indicated in case of lichen planus. Patient usually presents with marked whiteness of skin. Cracks and fissures in the palms of hand. The skin seems hard. Useful in hard elevated edges of ulcer, surrounding skin is purple and swollen. Worse during change of weather and better by warmth.


Silicea is one of the frequently indicated remedy in case of lichen planus, psoriasis etc. Suited to complaints that develop slowly. Acting on the skin Silicea causes inflammation. Most scaly erruptions alternating with dry erruptions. There is hyperpigmentation of spots, coppery spots. Erruptions usually itch only in the day time. Silicea usually hastens formation of abscess. There is imperfect assimilation and defective nutrition.


Sulphur is one of the widely used medicine to treat various kind of skin disorders. It is a very valuable remedy in treatment of lichen planus. Papules and erruptions with extreme dryness of skin. Intense itching of skin. Scratching of skin leads to intense burning of affected parts which is a marked indication of sulphur. Complaints are usually worse at night from warmth of bed. Burning in palms and soles is stricking feature of sulphur. Sulphur is a gneral antipsoric for almost every kind of itch. Unhealthy, dirty filthy individuals are prone to skin infections.


Ars iod is efficient remedy in case of lichen planus. Ars iod is a very good remedy for skin conditions like lichen planus, psoriasis, eczema. Marked exfoliation of skin in large scales, leaving raw exuding surface beneath. The skin is cold touch, dryness of skin. It cures all syphilitic erruptions where the symptoms agree, where erruptions have been suppressed by local treatments. There is marked excoriation, itching, burning and stinging pain with rough skin.


Borax is often indicated in case of Oral lichen planus. Presents with ulcers inside the cheeks And on tongue. Excessive heat in the mouth. Dry hot, tender apthous ulcers usually bleed on eating or by touch. Mouth remains extremely dry. Ulcers in mouth extend to throat, even to stomach. Difficult healing of skin. Unhealthy skin, every little injury tends to ulcerate. Itching on back of finger joints. Erruptions on fingers and hands.


Every organ or tissue of the body is more or less affected by this powerful remedy. Very often indicated in case of oral lichen planus. Presents with irregular ulcerd inside cheeks. The cheeks give a very unhealthy and dirty appearance. Salivary secretions are greatly increased. Painful raged swollen bleeding gums. Highly offenseive odour from mouth with metallic taste in mouth. Skin is almost constantly moist. Vesicular erruptions with severe itching worse from warmth of bed.