Anaemia can be defined as decreased haemoglobin counts or reduced red blood cell counts or reduced oxygen carrying capacity of blood, due to “loss of” or “abnormality of” red blood cells or haemoglobin.
Normal Heamoglobin Counts
6 months to 5 years of age > 11g/dl
5 years to 12 years of age > 11.5g/dl
12years to 16 years of age > 12g/dl
Adult Females (non-pregnant) > 12g/dl
Adult Females (pregnant) > 11gm/dl
Adult Males > 13g/dl
CAUSES OF ANAEMIA
Excessive Red Blood Cell destruction
Anaemia of Chronic diseases
Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia
Inflamatory bowel diseases
Hypervolemia or water retention due to sodium or other salts.
Genetic hereditary conditions like Thalasemia
Reduced erythropoetin production
Excessive RBC destruction
Impaired RBC production
Certain infections like malaria which causes RBC destruction.
Certain drugs which causes RBC destruction eg. Quinine causes chinchonism.
Bone Marrow lesions and pathologies
CLASSIFICATION OF ANAEMIA
There are many types of anaemias. It can be broadly classified into 7 categories depending upon their causes
Anaemia due to
Impaired or abnormal Erythropoesis
Based on RBC morphology it can be classified into 3 groups
FEW COMMON and RARE TYPES OF ANAEMIA
Iron Deficiency Anaemia
Autoimmune Hemolytic Anaemia
Congenital Dyserythropoetic Anaemia
Anaemia of Prematurity
Erythroblastopenia or Pure Red Cell Aplasia
In children it affects growth in general
Somnolence, Drowziness in day time
Disturbed sleep at night
Pallor, general pale appearance of skin, mucous membranes and eyes.
Dyspnoea on Exertion.
Reduced Immunity, tendency to catch infections and slow recovery and healing.
Cyanosis in severe cases
Low blood pressure
Craving for indigestible things , PICA
Cold clammy extremities
Oedematous swelling of extremities, dependent oedema
Angina or cardiac failure in severe cases
Will impact general growth and repair of all the vital organs and tissue of the body.
HOMEOPATHIC MEDICINES FOR ANAEMIA
Depending upon the cause of anaemia and general constitution of the patient, one of the following medicines may be called for duty by a homeopathic physician.
There was a time when premature greying of hair happend to only older people. Premature greying of hair has become a cause of concern for younger generation. Its not uncommon anymore to see people in thier early 20’s with a mop of grey hair on thier head. Premature greying of hair has become an important concern in present day and thousands of people both men and women alike are seeking medication for the same. Premature greying of hair can have a negative effect on appearance, confidence and social acceptance of the affected individual.
HOW AND WHY EXACTLY DOES GREYING OF HAIR OCCURS?
The root of every hair strand under the scalp is surrounded by a hair tissue called hair follicle which contains pigment cells. These cells produce the chemical called melanin that gives hair strand its colour.
When a person grows older the melanin production reduces making the strand greyish or white.
WHAT CAUSES PRE MATURE GREYING OF HAIR?
It is usually a complex multifactoral process.
Genetic factor: is one of the most common reasons for having grey hair at an early age.
Stress: Person under prolonged stress anxiety tension can be one of the cause of greying at an early age.
Dietary deficiencies: Deficiency of vitaminB, zinc, copper. These nutrients assist the metabolic process involved
in giving hair its natural colour.
Smoking damages the melanin producing cells melanocytes causing greying of hair.
Thyroid disorder: An underactive or overactive thyroid can affect the melanin production of hair.
HOMEOPATHIC APPROACH IN PREMATURE GREYING OF HAIRS
It is important to find the underlying cause for greying of hair.
Once this is done,the condition is best attended by Homeopathy.
With effective counselling,diet and regimen followed by a homeopathic medicine really helps.
HOMEOPATHIC REMEDIES INDICATED IN PREMATURE GREYING OF HAIRS
PREMATURE GREYING OF HAIR THERAPEUTICS :
EMBELICA OFFICINALIS or AMLAKI
Since ages Amla is known to benefit health of hair. Amla is rich source of Vitamin C, Iron, Calcium and has lots Fibres. In ayurveda it is well proven that amlaki helps reduce greying of hair Similarly in Homeopathy the tincture prepared from amla that is Embelica Officinalis Q also called Amlaki Q is proven to be too beneficial in cases of premature greying of hairs.
Phosphoric acid is one of the indicated remedies for the treatment of premature greying of hair resulting from grief and depression. There is thining and falling out of hair. The patient is indifferent to all affairs of life.Phosphoric acid helps to restore the pigmentation of hair that are destroyed by effects of grief.
Natrum muriaticum is indicated in treatment of premature greying of hair mainly in weak and anaemic person. Natrum Mur helps to improve general health of the patient and raise immunity to combat greying of hair. Natrum patients have severe headache which gets worse in the heat of sun.
Silicea is very useful in treating grey hair when the digestive power and absorption of nutrients is weak. Deficiency of nutrients lead to greying of hair. Silicea helps to improve the proper absorption of nutrients and hence prevent greying of hair.
Phosphorous is indicated in treatment of grey hair. It prevents further greying of hair. The patient presents with hairfall and dandruff, itchy dry scalp. Desires icy cold drinks.
Indicated in case of greying of hair. Helps to prevent greying of hair. Indicated when hair falls in spots, vinca helps to restore natural pigment of hair.
Indicated in case of premature greying of hair. Lycopodium halts the process of greying of hair when de pigmentation of hair occurs in spots. Indicated in patients whose hair problems are associated with gastric disturbances.
Indicated in premature greying of hair along with thyroid disorders. Helps in arresting the process of greying of hair.
Indicated in greying of hair presents with severe hair loss, sweating of scalp followed by intense itching.
DIETARY ADVICE FOR CASES OF PREMATURE GREYING OF HAIR
Increase your intake of fruits rich in vitamin C.
Amla since ages is known to aid in cases of premature greying of hair, it is recomended to consume atleast one amla everyday and when off season on can purchase dried amla powder. Amla Hair oil for external application on hair and scalp is also known to prevent greying of hairs.
Make sure your diet contains sufficient amount of green leafy vegetables
Adding almonds and other nuts rich in vitamin E can help reduce greying of hair.
Walnuts contain biotin that helps strengthen hair, reduces occurance of premature grey hair.
Hairfall has multiple causes and each cause needs to be attended
A careful history needs to be taken and case needs to be taken to note down the following factors
Life style including diet exercise rest use of cosmetics
Climate and Environment of the region where patient resides
History of communicable diseases
History of longterm medication
Family History and hereditary factors
Based on which we will be able to evaluate all the major factor involved and help us prepare line of treatment and selection of medicines
It is always advised that one should always select homoeopathic medicines as per Homoeopathic principles for best results.
Although there are certain medicines which can be generalised and given in almost any case with reasonably good results without side effects.
Below are few such medicines with simplified note for their selection as when they are called for.
Arnica Montana Promotes hair growth if applied locally can be mixed in coconut oil and massaged locally on scalp on daily basis.
Jaborandi Promotes hairgrowth and fights dandruff can be applied on scalp on daily basis.
Selenium hairfall due to dandruff and hormonal imbalance
Acidum Hydroflouricum hair lossdue to exudating eruptions on scalp and sensitive scalp
Lycopodium male pattern baldness
Acidum Phosphoricum Hair loss due to depressing emotions
Acidum Nitricum Hair loss with severe folliculitis with burning sensation on scalp
Kalium Carbonicun dryness of hair and scalp causing hairloss
Natrum Muriaticum Hair loss due to depressing emotions, anger resentment.
Calcarea Carbonica Hair loss in fair fat flabby women who typically have tendency towards thyroid affections.
A general care needs to be taken of hair scalp diet exercise rest which will be discussed in other article, as this article is intended only to throw light on commonly used homoeopathic medicines for hairfall.
Alopecia Areata is a systemic autoimmune disorder where autoantibodies are driven against anagen hair follicle.
PATHOHENESIS AND GENETICS OF ALOPECIA AREATA
Its thought to be systemic autoimmune disorder affecting anagen hairfollicle.Its T-cell mediated inflamatory non scarring condition. T-cell mediates inflamatory response around hair follicle which damages hair follicle.
Endogenous retinoids metabolic disorder plays a major role in its pathogenesis.
Atleast 129 various SNP are associated with this disease in genome.
Atleast 4 regions in genome are found to have these genes
Genes associated with this disease have functions of controlling the activation and proliferation of regulatory T cells, cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-Associated Antigen 4, InterLeukin-2, InterLeukin-2 receptor A, and Eos, and HLA.
PRDX5 and STX17 genes expressed in the hair follicle are associated with Alopecia Areata.
It shares genetic risk with autoimmune conditions like Diabetes Mellitus Type 1, Rheumatoid Arthritis and may accompany each other.It may be the only manifestation of Celiac disease.
Cases with congenital Alopecia Areata are also noted.It has strong hereditary association.Its a non contagious disease.
SYMPTOMS AND CLASSIFICATION OF ALOPECIA AREATA
It presents itself with small well demarcated bald patches with seemingly healthy skin below, with no scarring on skin. It can affect any region that has hair but it usually involves , scalp and beard. The patches are usually circular but it can present in any shape and extent. The hairs on the border of bald patches are very easy to pluck off compared to other regions.
CLASSIFICATION OF ALOPECIA AREATA
Diffuse Alopecia Areata
the baldness is diffused over whole scalp rather than in patches.
bald patch is located only in one spot
Alopecia Areata Multilocularis
many bald spots
hairloss at margins of hairline in waveforms
Alopecia Areata Barbae
disease is limited only in beard region
Alopecia Areata Totalis
complete hairloss of scalp
Alopecia Areata Universalis
all hair of each and every region are lost.
DIAGNOSIS OF ALOPECIA AREATA
Trichoscopy shows evenly distributed hyperkeratotic plugs called yellow plugs, small shoots of hairs like exclamation marks, and destroyed hair follicles in follicular openings called black dots.
HOMEOPATHIC MEDICINES FOR ALOPECIA AREATA
Sulphur is a general antisporic remedy. It is usually suited to lean, stoop shouldered patients. Sulphur is very well indicated remedy in case of Alopecia areata. Acting upon the external head, the itching is indescribable, constant itching worse from warmth of bed. Erruptions in general on the scalp. Severe loss of hair in patches. Dandruff with itense itching. Humid offensive erruptions with thick pus, yellow crust dry up into honey like scabs. Hair become dry, lustureless and fall off. Sulphur is a widely used remedy for almost every kind of itch.
Lycopodium has a very deep and broad sphere of action. It is a remedy prepared from club moss. Lycopodium is useful in case of alopecia areata. Frequently used remedy in case of hair loss, premature greying of hair, premature baldness. Patient usually presents with patchy hair loss. Itching in the scalp due to dandruff or erruptions which are thick indurated. Complaints are usually worse from warmth and better by cold applications. Extremely sensitive patient with deep furrows on forehead.
Kali bichromicum is prepared by the potentisation of salt potassium bicarbonate. Kali bichromicum is a wonerful deep acting remedy having effects on multiple system of body. Patient usually presents with hairfall in spots. Dandruff with severe itching. Dandruff is yellowish in colour with formation of scabs. Scalp is infected with severe itching. Kali bichromicum helps in regeneration of hair growth.
Phosphorous is well suited to young people who grow rapidly and are inclined to stoop. Phosporous indication in alopecia areata is very valuable. Phosphoorous works well in cases where falling of hair occurs in large bunches, leaving marked patches. Dandruff with sevre itching of scalp. Dry scalp and scaliness of scalp. Dry painful heat of scalp compellinh one to uncover head. Clammy perspiration on head only. Phosphorous helps in case of traction alopecia. There is receding hair line. Hairfall from forehead is prominent. Hence Phosphorous is very well indicated in frontal baldness too.
Thuja is one of the indicated remedy in case of Alopecia areata. Patient usually complains of diffuse hair loss along with dandruff on scalp. Dandruff is generally thick and whitish in color with intolerable itching. Patchy hair loss. Handfull of hair come out while combing or washing hair. Single bald spots progress to form multiple spots. Hence thuja is very good remedy in such cases.
Calcarea carbonicum is the chief representative of calcium compounds. Great Hahnemanian antiporic. Chief action is centered in vegetative sphere. Calcarea carbonicum is one of the frequently used remedy for hairloss. Usually associated with intense itching of scalp. Marked feature is excessive perspiration of scalp or head which is so intense even wets the pillow. Head feels hot. Scratches head on waking. Hair falls in bunches. Scabs on the scalp. Painful sensitive roots of hair. Dandruff with milky crusts causes intense itching. Boils on scalp which tend to suppurate.
Pulsatilla is pre eminently a female remedy especially suited to mild, gentle, yielding disposition. Very useful remedy in case of Alopecia areata. Hairfall in patches on combing hair. Purulent pustules on scalp with pain in the scalp. Itching on scalp mostly on temples and bwhind the ears. Dandruff white scaly with severe itching. Fetid and frequently cold perspiration on scalp with intense itching.
Arsenic album is a profoundly acting remedy on every organ and tissue. Arsennic album is one of the frequently indicated remedy for alopecia areata which usually appears as circular bald patches along with itching and burning of scalp. Sensitive scalp which it hes intolerably. The scalp is so sensitive that the patient cannot brush hair, seems as kfthe touch of comb or brush when rubbing over scalpwent into the brain. Circular patches of bald spots, rough, dirty, sensitive covered with dry scales. Hair greying at an early age, with severe hairfall.
Vitiligo is believed to be an immune mediate disorder affecting skin.
It is characterized by depigmented spots with sharp well defined margins bilateral in most of the cases , usually patches appears on exposed parts, extremities, body orifices, most common sites involved are hand, wrist, lips, face, feet, umbilicus, eye lids, nostrils mucosa of nose eye and mouth are also involved.
PATHOGENESIS and GENETICS
Its cause is not known, but it’s believed to be multifactorial disease which is genetically predisposed and triggered by Environmental factors. It is frequently accompanied by other autoimmune conditions like Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematoses, pernicious anaemia, alopecia areata etc.It is a non infectious condition. A strong hereditary association is noted.
Tyrosinase the enzyme of melanocyte expressed by TYR genewhich is not the component of immune system but catalyzes melanin synthesis and is a major autoantigen in generalised vitiligo. A genomewide dtudy have found around 36 loci associated with succeptibility towards generalised vitiligo, its usually due to defect in genes related to melanocytes or immune system , its doubted that there might be some autoimmune response towards melanocytes.
SYMPTOMS AND CLASSIFICATION
It can be classified into segmentaland nonsegmental types
In nonsegmental type the depigmentation appear somewhat symetrical and bilateral and usually grow with time and also appears in new areas with somewhat symetrical pattern it can start at any age and can grow to generalised or universalis where very few normal pigmented patches are left behind.
It is further categorised into
Vitiligo Universalis depigmented patches cover almost whole body with very few patches of normal pigmented patches are left behind , Micheal Jackson suffered from this type.
Generalised Vitiligo depigmented patches scattered throughout the body in somewhat symeterical fashion.
Focal Vitiligoone or few small patches in an area, commonly found in children.
Acrofacial vitiligo only fingers and periorificial areas involved
Mucosal Vitiligo only mucosal membranes involved
Segmental type usually affects segments of skin supplied by dorsal root from spinal cord. its usually nonsymetrical and unilateral, it is less frewuently associated with other autoimmune disorders as compared to segmental type, it usually is stable and static and does not grow much in size eith time.
When patches of affected skin are exposed to UV-A light it glows blue and the normal unaffected skin shows no reaction
Biopsy helps in confirmation of diagnosis
MEDICINES FOR VITILIGO IN HOMEOPATHY
BELOW MEDICINES ARE ONLY FOR QUICK REFERENCE AND THERAPUTIC HINTS.
ITS ALWAYS RECOMENDED TO TREAT SUCH AUTOIMMUNE CONDITIONS CONSTITUTIONALY, AFTER PROPER REPERTORISATION AND HOMEOPATHICALLY INDIVIDUALISED SIMILIMUM REMEDY SELECTION.
THE ABOVE MENTIONED CASE WAS TREATED WITH SINGLE SIMILIMUM DOSE FOLLOWED BY PLACEBO TILL DATE AND IT KEPT ON IMPROVING.
Psoralea corylifolia used not only in homeopathy but also is an important plant in Ayurvedic system of medicone. The seeds have a variety of traditional medicinal uses. Psoralea corylifolia is used in Homoeopathy and other system of medicines.
Psoralea corylifolia mother tincture is used therapeutically for various kinds of disorders. Psoralea corylifolia is a vedy valuable remedy in case of Vitiligo. It has a poweful action on the skin as it causes dilatation of arterioles of body leading to pigment formation which diffuses into discolorized leucodermic patches. It contains enormous biological values and is been used to treat various skin diseases from a long time like vitiligo, psoriasis, eczema. Psoralea corylifolia consists main components psoralen and iso psoralen thus it has antibacterial and anti viral properties. Psoralea corylifolea were used thousands of years ago in India for repigmentation of skin in vitiligo patients.
Ammi visnago is a natural substance used since a long time in herbal medicine. Ammi visnago is extracted from a plant in carrot family. Ammi visnago is a very beneficial remedy used in treatment of Vitiligo. Marked white patches are seen on the skin, it usually occurs when the melanocytes stop producing melanin. Usually the discoloration first shows on sun exposed areas such as hands, feet, arms, face, lips. Along with skin discoloration, there is permature greying of hair. Ammi visnago helps in repigmentation of vitiligo affected area.
Iodium is one of the indicated remedy in vitiligo. Usually presents with whitish discoloration of skin, whitish spots appear in patches. Melanocytes stop producing melanin, the pigment that gives color to skin, hair etc. Hence the involved patches become lighter. Iodium is usually suited to persons of scrofulous diathesis with dark black hair. Profound debility, great emaciation. Striking feature of iodium is eats ravenously yet emaciates.
ARS SULPH FLAVUM
ARS SULPH FLAVUM is one of the deep acting remedy which has very good results in case of vitiligo. The patient usually presents with discoloration of skin in patches that are pale white in colour. Ars sulph flavum is especially indicated when vitiligo is at the muco cutaneous junctions. Also indicated in other skin disorders such as eczema.
Sulphur is a great general antipsoric remedy widely used for various kinds of skin diseases. It is often of great use in begining the treatment of any chronic diseases. Erruptions almost of every kind. Useful in case of vitiligo. Whitish discoloration of skin. Skin is usually dry, rough, wrinkled. Unhealthy skin. Every erruption presents with great itching, sometimes itching occurs even without any erruption. Burning is the most characteristic symptom of sulphur.