Category Archives: Infectious diseases

Topics about infectious diseases and it homeopathic treatment.

COVID-19 NOVEL CORONAVIRUS 2019 INFECTION

COVID-19 Coronavirus Disease 2019

COVID-19 term is derived from “CO”rona”VI”rus “D”isease 20″19” it is caused due to Novel Coronavirus also known as 2019-nCoV or SARS-CoV-2. It is commonly known as Wuhan Coronavirus or Wuhan Sea Food Market Pneumonia Virus is an enveloped positive sense, single strand, RNA Coronavirus with a neucleocapsid of helical symetry which can infect and spread through human to human transmission causing flu like illness officially termed by WHO as Covid-19 where “Co” represents CORONA, “vi”represents virus, “d” stands for disease and “19” stands for year of first outbreak 2019.

Novel Coronavirus 2019-nCoV or SARS-CoV-2 Classification

Novel Coronavirus belongs to

  • Realm -Riboviria
  • Phylum -Incertia Sedis
  • Order -Nidoviralis
  • Family -Coronaviridae
  • Genus -Beta Corona virus
  • Sub Genus -Serbecovirus,
  • Virus -2019nCoV or SARS-CoV-2

Coronavirus strands that affect humans

Coronaviruses infects mammals and birds there are total 7 known strands that infect humans including 2019nCoV, first 2 strands were detected in 1960’s

  1. Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)
  2. Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)
  3. SARS-CoV
  4. Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus)
  5. Human coronavirus HKU1
  6. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), previously known as novel coronavirus 2012 and HCoV-EMC.
  7. Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). This is the strain that causes COVID-19 disease in humans

Covid-19 Pandemic

The first outbreak of the Novel Coronavirus or 2019nCoV in humans was confirmed and notified to WHO by China on 31/12/2019, when patients from Wuhan province of China were suffering with virus related non specific flu like illness from around 8/12/2019 then later the genome was sequenced to confirm this absolutely new and novel strain of coronavirus 2019-nCoV or SARS-CoV-2

Within three months of first reported case on 8/12/2019 the coronavirus outbreak that had first started from Wuhan in China had now reached more than 66 countries including India, Thailand, Japan, South Korea, Italy, Iran, Germany, Taiwan, Hong Kong, USA, Vietnam, Singapore etc. claiming more than 3100+ deaths of estimated 100000+ infected as on 8/3/2020. The death toll is constantly rising, in subsequent two months that is by 8/6/2020 almost 6.5 million got infected and almost 4lac deaths.

It will take some time to estimate mortality rate but it seems to be around 2%. Old people and people with other pre-existing disease condition are at higher risk of succumbing to death. With increasing death rate rises steeply with upto 50-70% death rate in symptomatic patients above 60 with hypertension or diabetes or other complications.

Most of the initial cases were from Huanan seafood market so epizootic origin is suspected.Outbreak of this particular strain of coronavirus is for the first time, So its new for human immune system. As the time lapses the affected community will start developing certain immunity against it, which will slow down the progress of transmission and epidemic as time lapses. Also with time and better understanding of virus and its epidemic, the health authorities will be more efficient in containing the disease and its epidemic.

There is a split between science community where in a group suggests that it has originated from snake where as other claims that snake cannot be the probable the reservoir and is probably from mammal reservoir mostly the bats as the genome sequencing shows 96% resemblance of bat coronavirus and 2019-nCoV.

It is postulated that homologous recombination of Clad A bat viruses “CoVZC45 and CoVZXC21” with some unknown Beta-CoV may have formed 2019nCoV

Human to human transmission of novel coronavirus was confirmed till mid January And the damage was done till then. The virus had started spreading at pace unmatched by any other disease witnessed in past 100 yrs.

PATHOGENESIS OF COVID-19 or Novel Coronavirus 2019 Infection

Still the pathogenesis is not been clearly understood but data and study results are fast pouring in and now we have some basic understanding about but there are many missing gaps and needs to be understood and filled up soon.

The Pathogen

The disease causing agent and its full geneome was sequence in December 2019-January 2020, soon after initial outbreak.It was found that the disease causing agent was a virus which had 70% genomic resemblence to SARS-CoV and 50% genomic resemblence to MERS- CoVand they termed it as Novel Coronavirus 2019 or 2019nCoV or SARS-CoV-2 and disease caused by this virus was termed as COVID-19.

Inoculation of 2019nCoV

From initial studies it seems that 2019nCoV attaches to the receptors of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) through an endocytosis process trigerred with the help of spike protein present on surface envelop of the virus . Which are present good quantity on lymphocytes, macrophages, epithelial linning of respiratory mucosa, lungs alveoli, enodthelium of blood vessels, gastrointestinal tract and are also expressed by vital organ like heart and kidneys, which we see getting affected in this disease.

Multiplication and Spread of 2019nCoV

Virus not only has capability to attach to ACE2 receptors of upper respiratory tract and inoculate the cells but also has capability to actively replicate in upper-respiratory tract tissue which was demonstrated by isolating virus from swabs of upper respiratory tract with presence of Sub-Genomic mRNA (sgRNA) in cells of upper respiratory tract. There is tropism of upper respiratory tract and shedding of virus.

All of the above factors explains us fast and easy transmission of virus even in early stage of disease as compared to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV.

Virus predominantly infects through upper-respiratory in majority cases and then gradually by 3-4 days it involves lower respiratory tract and then by second week there is wide spread invasion into bloodvessels and major vital organs like heart, kidneys with general viremia.

Immune Reaction Towards 2019nCoV Infection and Its Consequences

Its not only virus that causes damage to system but also the body’s immune response against the virus is causing damage to the body which is observed by excessive production of early proinflamatory mediators like Interlukine 6 (IL6) Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF) Interlukine 1 (IL1), presence of inflamatory infiltrate in lungs. Reduced blood level of T-Lymphocytes and B-Lymphocytes although direct due to viral attack on these cells but also is attributed to redistritbution by immune respone which is demonstrated by presence of comparative more number of T-cell and B-cells at inflamatory sites.

The Cytokine Storm Postulate

There is much evidence to suggest that the initial immune response driven against virus causes activation of coagulation pathway which results in excessive production of early proinflamatory mediators which accumulate overtime leading to vascular hyperpermeability and micro-coagulations resulting from disturbed procoagulant-anticoagulant axis balance due to overt inflamatory response.

Thrombin, known for its primary role in coagulation by activation of platelets and conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin, also has multiple cellular effects that may enhance inflamatory response through Protinase-Activated Receptors(PARs).

Thrombin production is tightly controlled by negative feedback loops and physiological anti-coagulants like Tissue Pathway Factor Inhibitor, Antithrombin III and Protein 3. Inflamatory process can significantly reduce the concentration of anti-coagulants this deviates the fine balance of axis between procoagulant-anticoagulant balance that causes multiple micro-coagulations disseminated intravascular clots and multiple organ failure.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS of COVID-19

It shows symptoms that of severe respiratory tract infection giving rise to pneumonia with some gastrointestinal symptoms like other coronavirus infection, Its symptoms are much related to 2003 SARS Epidemic caused due to SARS-CoV.

Most of the patients remain asymptomatic and never get detected many show mild to moderate symptoms this forms the vast majority.

COVID 19 CLINICAL PRESENTATION

  • Almost 98% symptomatic cases of 2019-nCoV(Covid-19) infection presents with Fever
  • Dry Coughing is present in almost 82% of symptomatic cases.
  • Of all the cases sputum production is seen in 25-30% cases and Hemoptysis in upto 5% of all the cases.
  • Fatigue is observed in almost 70% cases approaching medical care
  • Muscle-aches (myalgia) in almost 44% of all the cases.
  • Headaches in almost 13% of all the cases
  • Diarrhoea experienced in 10% cases
  • Vomitting seen in 10% of all the patients
  • Almost 55% of all the cases will develop shortness of breath after 3-8days of initial general symptoms.
  • Almost 20% of all the the cases seem to progress into severe disease with respiratory distress symptoms within a day or two of developing shortness of breath.
  • Few patients go into shock and may develop cardiac arythmias.
  • Of all the cases less than 5-10%(approx) will die due to complications, mostly those who are elderly children or have other prevailing disease condition like diabetes, cardiac diseases, cancer etc.
  • X – ray and CT scan shows bilateral Lungs involvement with Ground Glass Opacities, grey white consolidated patches.
  • Leucopenia -Low WBC count especially lymphocytes – lymphopenia.
  • Increased Neutrophil to Lymphocytes Ratio(NLR)
  • Increased D. Dimer
  • Reduced Prothrombin time
  • Reduction in bleeding and clotting time.

SYMPTOM PROGRESSION

Window period of 2019-nCoV ranges between 2-14days. It takes 2-14 days for symptoms to appear post exposure to virus. Note the patient of 2019 nCoV (Covid-19) can spread infection to others even during this window period l, that is, even before any symptoms starts appearing after first inoculation of 2019-nCoV into body or even any test to decisively test positive.

After window period is over and the symptoms starts appearing the following pattern is seen in progression of clinical symptoms commonly found in most cases.

DAY 1-2 Initially on first 1-2 days patient will show mild fatigue malaise and heaviness of head with mild rise in temperature, few will show a peculiar symptom of Olfactory loss- loss of taste and smell(usually this type of presentation shows mild disease form and has has good prognosis).

DAY 2-3 Gradually the temperature will increase from 2-3rd day with mild irritation in throat.In many this symptom will stop increasing at this stage and will remain mild symptomatic throughout the course of disease, in rest it will progress with fever exceeding 100F, bodyaches, joint pains, weakness

DAY3-4 Fever continues to relapse with dry cough a very few minority might start showing development of shortness of breath even at this early stage.

DAY4-6 Loose motion is frequently encountered on once or twice between 4th and 6thday(in few minority it has appeared right on day one of initial symptoms) this might bring in weakness and exhaustion in patients and those with high fever may be drained even more by accompanying diarrhoea. Few might go into respiratory distress at this stage.

DAY 78 From 7th day onwards in few patients fever starts subsiding a bit but in many it persists and few go into respiratory distress.

DAY 8-9 Now 8th-9th days are important to observe as from here on majority patient’s immune system will develop sufficient immunity and resistance against virus and fight it off from the body and recover. Their fever breaks away and they start feeling better with weakness leaving their body but in few cases there is no recovery at this stage such patients progresses into critical stage either fever continues or breathlessness sets this is when the patient needs be urgently shifted to ICU.

WARNING SIGNS

  • Patients with co-morbidity like Diabetes Mellitus, Cardiovascular or Kidney diseases, Immuno-compromised, Organ failure, Asthma Bronchitis, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease(COPD),Cancer, Autoimmune diseases, Severe anaemia, etc.
  • Greater severity of pneumonia at presentation.
  • Elderly patients – Older the age greater the risk.
  • Radio-opacities and/or pulmonary infiltrates on X-ray findings
  • Neutrophil to Lymphocyte ratio (NLR) of more than 3.13
  • SPO2 level below 95%
  • Increased BUN or Serum Creatinine
  • Increased Liver enzymes SGOT SGPT, Bilirubin
  • Any neurological event
  • Increased D Dimer
  • Increased LDH
  • Reduced bleeding time
  • Reduced Clotting time
  • Reduced Prothrombin time
  • Transeminated intravascular clot.

COVID-19 DIAGNOSIS

There are two types of testing approach one is direct test and indirect test.

1) DIRECT TEST :-

Throat Swab for RT-PCR for SARS CoV-2

detects viral protein through Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR it is gold standard test as it amplifies/enhances virus protein to detectable levels and give most accurate results possible as we are directly detecting virus. But it is comparatively more costly and time consuming. Still it’s recomended as rapid antibody tests(indirect tests) that are available till date are too inaccurate to rely

2) INDIRECT TEST :-

Blood Test for Antibodies IgM and IgG against SARS CoV-2

Herebwe are not directly detecting the virus but we try to find out antibodies formed against 2019-nCoV/ SRAS CoV-2 virus. It is comparatively rapid in nature but not accurate. Presence of antibodies – IgM and IgG against SARS CoV-2 are indicators of past or active

Interpretation of blood test for diagnosis of Covid 19

  • RT-PCR -ve, IgM -ve & IgG -ve Means No current, No past infection or may be window period.
  • RT-PCR +ve, IgM -ve & IgG -ve means early infection no immune response developed
  • RT-PCR +ve, IgM+ve & IgG -ve suggests infection with early acute phase immune response developed.
  • RT-PCR +ve, IgM +ve & IgG +ve means later stage of infection with with longer lasting immune response developed.
  • RT-PCR +ve, IgM -ve & IgG +ve suggests acute phase of infection is recovered and virus is being neutralised and strong immunity is being developed.
  • RT-PCR -ve, IgM-ve & IgG +ve means infection has completely resolved and there is nonvirus in body and patient is non infectiois and has developed certain immunity towards virus for quite some time.

Time Line of Sensitivity of various Laboratory Investigations for Covid 19.

Day 0: Infected (innoculation)

Upto Day 5: Onset of symptoms(variable 2-21days, with 11.2days average)

Day 7: IgM positive – (from Day 7 toDay 21)

Day 14: IgG positive

Day 21: IgM disappears

Days 1-28: SARS CoV2 RNA & Antigens will be positive

Day 28: SARS CoV2 RNA & Antigens disappears

Disease Progression, Antibodies, Viral load, and Infectivity

Day 0 -Day 7: Window Period, Asymptomatic, Only PCR positive in this Phase, negligible Viral load on day 0-1 but viral load starts increasing very speedily and within a couple of days patient from mildly infectious on day 0 and 1, becomes considerably infectious and infectivity keeps increasing with each passing and in no time patient becomes highly infectious by the end of this period.

Day 7- Day 21: Symptomatic, both PCR and IgM Positive, Patient is highly infectious.

Day 14- Day 21: Decline Phase, PCR, IgM and IgG positive, Patient is highly infectious.

Day 21- Day 28: Convalescence Phase,IgM negative, IgG positive, PCR on declining count, Patient is still infectious.

After day 28: most of the patients are recovered and also PCR turns negative,so they are not infectious, IgG remains elevated,

OTHER TESTS

CT SCAN

Chest CT scan along with clinical picture and other blood tests like D.Dimer, CBC, NLR, ABG, CRP and ESR, LDH is also very important tool to give direction in diagnosis especially during pandemic when resources are less for RT-PCR. CT scan pattern may help to establish provisional diagnosis, during pandemic, which later can be confirmed by RT-PCR.

PREVENTION OF NOVEL CORONAVIRUS INFECTION DURING TIMES OF COVID-19 PANDEMIC

COVID 19 is caused by 2019-nCoV also called SARS-CoV-2. It is a highly contagious virus. The virus can spread even through casual contacts and proximity.

Current studies suggests that virus can survive on surfaces like glass, plastic, metals etc for may be up to 9days and in fecal material for may be upto weeks of which studies are still going on for confirmation.

It has spread to infect more than 63,00,000 person worldwide within a very short span of just 5months since its outbreak. Time and again most of the types of Coronavirus have proven themselves to have potential to create global pandemic claiming many lives within no time. Looking at the scale of pandemic and potential of 2019nCoV virus to spread very fast and claim lacs of lives in no time has spread panic and concern throughout the world as fast increase in cases of COVID-19 has overwhelmed the healthcare system even of the best country of the world with doctors finding them helpless against the disease and its scale and so almost all the major countries of the world have implimented partial or complete lockdown and social distancing norms to contain and slow down the spread of virus.

  • Keep distance from infected person, at least 6 feet of distance is recomended
  • Wear masks in public places
  • Avoid traveling to area affected with 2019-nCoV epidemic
  • Quatrantine patients traveling from COVID-19 epidemic regions.
  • Avoid contact with person known to have came in contact with any person infected with 2019-nCoV or travel history from affected area.
  • Report any case of cough, cold, fever or symptoms of flu to health authorities found in all the regions where cases of SARS-CoV-2 also called 2019-nCoV is prevailing.
  • Person staying in affected regions should stay within their home and avoid any public places as much as possible.
  • While moving out in affected region, wear removable and easily washable overcoats, wear disposable gloves, protective eye wears.
  • Touching with bare hands to public handle, buttons, walls curtains and other objects in public places in affected region should be avoided.
  • When in public place, try to prefer option with open air and lesser crowd then in enclosed public premises.
  • Dont use public transport unless its unavoidable.
  • Stay away from sewage channels and fecal material.
  • Prefer food prepared at home that too fully cooked and avoid uncooked raw food.
  • Avoid gathering and meeting people during times of epidemic.
  • Avoid hand shakes and close proximity with other people during epidemic.
  • Maintain healthy lifestyle and nutrition, food rich in Zinc, Iron and Vitamin C is recomended
  • Keep all rooms highly ventilated.
  • Sanitize your hands frequently almost every 1-2hours, wash hands at least for 20seconds at a time.
  • People with long hairs should keep hair in such a way that it doesn’t come in contact with potentially infected objects in public places e.g. handle on seat back on buses and trains.
  • Eat nutritious food, daily yoga and exercise sufficient exposure to sunlight, timely meal sleep and exercise helps boost health and immunity to prevent and fight the disease.

When and how to use mask correctly is explained and demonstrated in the video below by WHO

When To Use Mask Explained in Video released By World Health Organisation
When and How to use mask and precautions while using mask explained in detail with procedure of wearing and removing mask by WHO.

HOMOEOPATHIC MEDICINE ARSENICUM ALBUM 30 PREVENTIVE MEDICINE AGAINST CORONAVIRUS DURING COVID -19 PANDEMIC

Expert committee of MINISTRY OF AYUSH, GOVT OF INDIA has identified Arsenicum Album 30 as Genus Epidemicus for immunity enhancement during COVID-19 pandemic and has recomended issuing public notice regarding the same. It has also recomended registered homeopathic practioners of India to suggest identified COVID-19 Genus Epidemicus Arsenicum Album 30 to people as immunity enhancement during the COVID 19 pandemic.

As per Ministry of Ayush, Govt of India Circular:-

Central Council for research in Homeopathy and Ministry of Ayush on its 64th Scientific Advisory Board meeting date 28th January 2020, recomended that Arsenicum Album 30 could be taken as prophylactic medicine against coronavirus infection in following prescribed dose

  • One Dose of Arsenicum Album 30 on Empty Stomach For 3 Consecutive Days
  • The Dose Should Be Repeated After One Month Following The Same Schedule.

Other Precautions that needs to be followed during homeopathic medication

  • Do not eat or drink anything at least for 1 hour after taking medicine. Plain water or milk at room temperature could be consumed during this one hour if required.
  • Brush Teeth at least one hour before or after taking this doses i.e one hour interval prior and after the dose.
  • Avoid Uncooked Onion, Uncooked Garlic and Coffee atleast for 5 days when you start medicines.

Govt. Of India, Ministry of AYUSH suggests Homeopathy for prevention and treatment of 2019novel coronavirus Covid-19. https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1600895

Ministry of AYUSH, Government of INDIA advisory for prevention of Coronavirus 2019nCoV section picture
Govt of India, Ministry of AYUSH coronavirus homeopathic preventive medicine advisory section picture

Homeopathic Medicines Indicated For COVID-19 Novel Coronavirus Infection

As per my view other than basic symptomatic supportive treatment and available regular conventional allopathic treatment, homeopathic medicines can be used in conjunction, as per indication under guidance and observation of both qualified homeopathic physician and allopathic physician.

Few of the Homeopathic medicines that can be useful in treatment of COVID-19 that is SARS-CoV-2 infection also called 2019 novel coronavirus infection are listed below.

ACONITUM NAPELLUS

Initial stage of fever or first day of symptoms in patients much fear and anxiety. Also this medicine can be used for patients having psychological problems of fear fright and anxiety due to COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown psychological effects.

BELLADONNA

This remedy may prove useful for heaviness of head, fever and bodyaches in COVID-19

ARSENICUM ALBUM

This is wonderful drug used since ages to treat respiratory complaints be it asthma, allergic rhinitis, viral respiratory infections or bacterial respiratory infections. Arsenic is consumed by mountaineers since ages which helps them to survive in higher altitudes in low oxygen environment it shall work well in any stage of Covid 19 infection. Itcan also be brought into service in patirnt with breathlessness and respiratory distress. Arsenicum Album acts not only on respiratory sphere but also gastrointestinal sphere which should cover the sptom of diarrhoea that many Covid-19 patients present along with respiratory and general symptoms. It should work well in Covid 19 patients with weakness where the patient is mentally restless but physically too weak to move.

USE OF ARSENICUM ALBUM AS HOMEOPATHIC GENUS EPIDEMICUS TO ENHANCE IMMUNITY AGAINST CORONA VIRUS DURING COVID-19 PANDEMIC

ARSENICUM ALBUM 30 is being identified as Genus Epidemicus and is suggested by Ministry of Ayush, Government of India under consultation of Central Council For Research in Homeopathy that it could be taken as prophylactic against Coronavirus infection one dose every morning on empty stomach for three consecutive days and same protocol should be repeated after a month of the epidemic still prevails in the region.

ARNICA MONTANA

Cytokine-Storm is associated with increased capalilary permeability and disemminated intravascular coagulation due to overproduction of early-proinflamatory cytokines causing imbalance in procoagulant-anticoagulant balance causing microcoagualations in complicated cases of COVID19.

Arnica Montana is commonly used medicine in homeopathy to dissolve internal clots by stimulating body’s natural pathways to dissolve clots and in inverse concentration un-homeopathically it is also used to form clots stop to stop bleeding. So Arnica Montana has both the type of effects procoagulant and anticoagulant depending on what concentartion and repetition its uses. So with correct homeopathically succussed dilution and correct posology it may prove useful in such acute life threatening situation condition of sudden cytokine storm which causes dissemminated intravascular coagulations with damaged leaky hyperpermeable capillaries .

BRYONIA ALBA

This medicine works well in cases who are living in region where days are hot and nights are cold. dry coughing, shortness of breath, fever, body aches, muscle aches are some of the symptoms covered by bryonia in COVID-19 patients. Master Hahnemann recommends bryonia alba in epidemics during summer season affecting respiratory system.

CAMPHORA

Camphora made from camphor can be used in terminally ill COVID-19 patient with gross signs of circulatory insufficiency, cyanosis, hypoxia and this should be the first medicine brought in immediately administered in cases of sudden collapse. Typically it has to be used in higher potency as recomended by some homeopaths.

AGARICUS MUSCARIUS

Agaricus muscarius typically used in homeopathy for frosbite and cyanosis of extrimities can prove beneficial in terminally ill COVID-19 patients with signs of cyanosis and bluish discolouration of extremities like finger and toes this homeopathic medicine should be called in for service.

CRATEGUS OXYACANTHA

crategus oxyacantha may prove of great service in COVID-19 patients having cardiac complaints and high lipid profile having circulatory distress and disseminated intravascular coagulations crategus should be thought of is complimentary and supportive medicine.

ASPIDOSPERMA QUEBRACHO

Aspidosperma Quebracho successfully used in homeopthic mother tincture form since ages for treatment of acute exacerbations of asthma and cardiac asthma may prove useful in COVID-19 patients that has cardiac complaint and develop Cardiac Asthma.

ANTIMONIUM TARTARICUM

Antimonium Tartaricum shall prove useful for COVID-19 patients living in region with high humidity near sea-shores works wonders in relieving rattling cough with thick mucous especially in aged.

KALIUM BICHROMICUM

Kalium Bichromicum is very commonly used medicine in homeopathy which is helpful in getting rid of thick stringy ropy mucous it may prove of great service in COVID-19 cases with accumulation of thick mucous difficult to bring up.

JUSTICIA ASHATODA

Justicia Adhatoda also known as Vasaka in indian medicine and iss used in Ayurveda since ages. It is a great expectorant if used in lower potency preferably in homeopathic mother tincture form.

SEPTIC ARTHRITIS

Septic Arthritis is invasion of joint by micro-organisms causing inflamation, it is also called infection of joint or Arthritis due to infection or infective arthritis.

CAUSES

VECTORS

Septic Arthritis can be caused due to infection of any of the following vectors

  • Bacteria
  • Virus
  • Fungus
  • Parasite

Most Common Organisms Known to Cause Septic Arthritis.

  • Staphylococci – Methycillin Resistant Staphylococcus Auris(MRSA)
  • Streptococci
  • Escherichia Coli
  • Pseudomona Aeruginosa
  • Neisseria Gonorrhoeae
  • Neisseria Meningitidis
  • Myocbacterium Tuberculosis
  • Salmonella spp.
  • Brucella spp.
  • Eikenella Corodens
  • Pasteurella Multocida
  • Borrelia Burgdorferi
  • Rubella virus
  • Parvovirus B19
  • Chickungunya virus

RISK FACTORS

Usually its not common to get joint infection unless the immunity of a person is weak or there is history of surgery, prosthesis, deep tissue infections etc.

  • Joint Surgery
  • Prosthetic implants
  • HIV
  • Immuno-suppressive Medication
  • Intravenous drug users
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Arthritis due to Gout
  • Gonorrhoea
  • Infective Endocarditis
  • Deep and /or nonhealing wounds
  • Other deep tissue infections
  • Other causes of septicemia
  • Old age

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF SEPTIC ARTHRITIS

  • Usually single joint is infected, less frequently more than one joints are involved.
  • Most commonly involved joint is knee joint and other freqently involved joints are hip, spine, shoulder, wrist, elbow, sacroilliac and sternoclavicular joints.
  • Sudden onset of symptoms, fast progression of disease.
  • Swelling, redness with increased local Heat and pain around joint. Swelling and redness is comparatively much more than other types of arthritis.
  • Fever with or without chills and headache.
  • Cant move joint due to severe pain.
  • Pain aggravated in slightest motion or jarring, pain is ususally aching type with stitching, stinging and pulsating.

DIAGNOSIS OF SEPTIC ARTHRITIS

  • Athrocentesis – microorganisms usually found on culture, WBC count above 50,000-1,00,000/cubic mm, neutrophils more than 90%, lactate count more than 10mmol/l.
  • CBC – increased wbc
  • Blood culture positive for micro-organism
  • ESR – elevated
  • CRP – elevated
  • Procalcitonin – elevated
  • NAAT – to rule out gonorehoea
  • Ultrasound – joint effusion
  • CT scan – Region involved type and extent of damage
  • MRI – Region involved type and extent of damage

HOMOEOPATHIC MEDICINES FOR SEPTIC ARTHRITIS

Septic Arthritis is a medical emergeny case and requires immediate medical intervention, any delay in treatment can cause damage and complete destruction of joint with in hours to days.

Acute fast acting Homeopathic Medicines are selected with special affinity to joints and pathogenesis that of sudden, severe, acute inflamation with much swelling redness. Below is the list of indicated homeopathic medicines that I prefer in case of infective arthritis.

  • APIS MELIFICA
  • BELLADONA
  • LEDUM PALUSTURE
  • RHUS TOXICODENDRON
  • BRYONIA ALBA
  • PYROGENUM
  • ACONITUM NEPELLUS
  • MEDHORRINUM
  • TUBERCULINUM
  • SYPHILLINUM

REACTIVE ARTHRITIS

Reactive Arthritis was also called Reiter’s Arthritis is RF-negative and HLA-B27 Linked Imflamatory oligoarthritis typical with Enthesitis, accompanied with Inflamatory occular and/or inflamatory genitourinary and other systemic manifestation usually post gastrointestinal or genitourinary infection.

During world war one and two many cases emerged with the Triad of Symptoms viz. Inflamation of Joints, Inflamation of eyes and Inflamation of Uretha. Which drew attention of medical community due to common presentation in many giving it some syndrome like picture. On further investigations it was found out that most of them were exposed to urogenital or Gastro-intestinal infection 1-4 weeks prior to onset of this Triad of Symptoms. This was initially termed as “Fessenger-Leroy-Reiter’s Syndrome” or simply  “Reiter’s Syndrome”. But as the physician Hans Conard Julius Reiter  was involved in attrocities and war crimes with Hitler, so his name was removed and later renamed and termed as “Reactive Arthritis”.

EPIDEMIOLOGY OF REACTIVE ARTHRITIS

  • AGE – It more frequently affects age group of 20-40 years.
  • SEX – It is more common in Males then in Females.
  • ETHNICITY – Due to its association with HLA-B27 it is frequently found in white race compared to dark race as comparatively HLA-B27 occurs more commonly in white population.
  • RISK FACTOR – Person with HIV positive status are more prone to develop reactive arthritis.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF REACTIVE ARTHRITIS

The onset of symptoms of Reactive Arthritis typically starts 4-35 days after an initial infection of gastro-intestinal system or genito-urinary system.

TRIAD OF REACTIVE ARTHRITIS

Reactive arthritis in most of the cases presents where patient cant – SEE, PEE, climb the TREE! due to following Classical Triad of Symptoms of reactive arthritis

i) OLIGOARTHRITIS

Oligoarthritis involving less than five joints. It may frequently involve knee and sacroilliac joint as well. May present itself in additive pattern where it starts with one joint and add another joints subsequently or it may be migratory in pattern where the set of inflamed joints keep changing by addition and simultaneous substraction of joints involved.

ii) NON-GONOCOCCAL GENITOURINARY INFLAMATION

Inflamation of genitourinary system classically presents itself at the onset of the disease. Not always but in many its typically after initial sexual exposure. It presents as frequent burning micturation, uritheritis, prostatitis, balanitis in men and salpingitis, vulvitis and vaginitis in women.

iii) OCCULAR INFLAMATION

Occular Inflamation may present itself as mild conjunctivitis or uveitis in 75% of cases with gastrointestinal origin and 50% of cases with urogenital  involvement. patients have intermittent irritation in eyes with blurred vision typically commences at onset of disease.

OTHER SYMPTOMS

  • Few patients also presents with peculiar symptom which is specific to reactive arthritis, its Keratoderma Blenorrhagica which are small hard nodule commonly appear on soles occasionally on palms and rarely on other parts of body subcutaneous nodules are not incluced. Even in absence of above mentioned triad of symptom the presence of Keratoderma Blenorrhagica is diagnostic for reactive arthritis.
  • In reactive arthritis; typical to HLA B27 related immunological reactions; involves Entheses that is where skeletal muscles attaches with bones through tendons, where it causes Enthesitis and tendon inflamation especially the tendo-achilles and also fascia in particular Plantar Tendinitis.
  • Occasionally patients also suffer from dactilitis giving finger sausage-like apperance “sausage finger” due to inflamation.
  • Mucocutaneous involvement presents as ulcerative or non ulcerative stomatitis, apthous ulcers and geographic tongue are also seen as presentation of this disease
  • Cardiac involvement causing pericarditis and aortic regurgitation in cases which do no recover soon or if its recurring or progressive.
  • Gastrointestinal manifestation like pain and cramps with frequent semiformed stools with mucous and insome cases blood due to  inflamation and ulcceration in gastrointestinal tract.

Most of the cases of Reactive Arthritis recover within six months, in many cases it keeps comming back time and again and in few it becomes chronic and progressive which may increase risk of severe complications.

COMPLICATIONS OF REACTIVE ARTHRITIS

In chronic progressive and recurring cases the patient may develop following complications

  • Ankylosing Spondylosis
  • Disabling Arthritis
  • Aortitis
  • Aortic Regugitation
  • Conduction defects of Heart
  • Pericarditis
  • Amyloid deposits
  • Immunoglobulin A Nephropathy

CAUSE OF REACTIVE ARTHRITIS

Reactive Arthritis is is HLA B27 linked inflamatory arthritis and enthesitis preceeded by a spell of infection either of genito-urinary system  or gastro-intestinal system by following commonly involved organisms

GENITO-URINARY INFECTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH REACTIVE ARTHRITIS

  • Chlamydia Trachomatis
  • Ureaplasma Urealyticum

GASTRO-INTESTINAL INFECTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH REACTIVE ARTHRITIS

  • Salmonella Spp.
  • Shigella Spp.
  • Campylobacter Spp.
  • Yersinia Spp.

4-35 days after the spell of urethritis or food poisoning by above mentioned organisms the symptoms of reactive arthritis sets in, where the synovial fluid has negative culture ans is free from infection and but the HLA B27 linked  inflamation is thought to be triggered due to

  • Autoimmune reaction due to cross reactivity of micro-organism antigen with joint tissue  or
  • Micro-organism antigenic components that may have settled in joint tissue.

DIAGNOSIS OF REACTIVE ARTHRITIS

Clinically the Reactive Arthritis can be diagnosed with help of Sensitivity and Specificity Guidlines laid down by American College of Rheumatology, for clinical diagnosis with given set of presenting symptom, its as follows

  1. Arthritis > 1 month with Urethritis and/or cervicitis has  sensitivity of 84.3% and specificity of 98.2%.
  2. Arthritis > 1 month with Urethritis or Cervicitis or bilateral Conjunctivitis has Sensitivity of 85.5% Specificity of 96.4%.
  3. Arthritis, Urethritis and Conjunctivitis has Sensitivity of 50.8% and sensitivity of 98.8%.
  4. Arthritis > 1 month, Conjunctivitis and Urethritis has Sensitivity 48.2% and Specificity of 98.2%.

Patients falling in above criteria or those showing just Keratoderma Blenorrhagica without any other symptoms and other suspected cases can be sent for following test for further evaluation.

  • HLA B27 testing
  • Urine routine and culture
  • STOOL Routine and culture
  • Throat swab culture
  • Cervix and Urethral swab culture
  • Erythrocytes Sedimentation Rate
  • C-Reactive Protein Test

HOMEOPATHIC TREATMENT FOR REACTIVE ARTHRITIS

Being an immune mediated systemic reaction that too the one that is triggered with different causative agents and even to same agents different individuals will respond differently.

Though they may have same set of general symptoms like the classical triad of reactive arthritis but intensity of each of the symptom of triad will differ in each individual,

Now this is where the homeopathic individualisation process starts. In Homeopathy we believe that though majority of human genome is the same but the minor variations in gene and the epigenome make the whole lot of difference in various characteristerics of each individual, similarly their immune reaction also varies, so every person should have individualised medicine.

Homeopathic Treatment is based on symptom similarity and individualisation of case based on peculiar symptoms based on which the case is individualised and medicine is selected.

Alternatively as per Homeopathic principle of Genus Epidemicus or pathology based symptomatology there can be disease specific homeopathic medicine derived from common symptomatic representation of a disease condition in a group of population.

Now this can not be the most similimum homeopathic prescription but roughly it can hit the disease condition within an indivudual though not accurate but will yeild some results in most of the cases.

To yield best homeopathic results there can be no generalised common approach for all cases.

But still if we have to attempt common standardised pathology based approach then to give some guidelines on homeopathic approach towards cases of reactive arthritis I have attempted following rough guidelines which may help to give some vision in approach towards such cases.

Its seen that in few case it begins after gastro-intestinal infection and in some case post genito-urinary infection. So this will further guide determining “morbid cause” behind the disease directing us in homoeopathic similimum medicine selection.

Now reactive Arthritis shows a triad of symptom in most of the cases. So this triad helps us to reach to group of medicines with such combination of symptoms.

Intensity, occurance of symptoms and its sequence in triad differs in each individuals. For example

  • In some person urogenital symptoms may be more severe compared to occular symptoms or arthritis symptoms, where as in others arthritis and ocular symptoms would be more severe than urogenital symptoms.
  • Some may not have occurence of  conjunctivitis
  • In some all three triad occur at a time where as in some patients it may occur gradually one after another in different sequence.

All this helps us find out the “seat of disease” in an individual and its degree of affinity towards various organs which can be related to homeopathic medicines during selection process.

Further arthritis may show different pattern like

  • progressive
  • migratory
  • additive
  • symetry
  • predominantly involved joint
  • sequence of joint involvement
  • number of joints involved
  • severity
  • intensity
  • type of sensation and other symptoms

Also similarly symptoms of occular involvement and urogenital involvement should be take in to account in absolute detail. This further helps refine and classify the patient and the respective medicines to be repertorised.

Which other systems and organs are involved like mucous membranes, skin, heart, kidney etc and what type of pathology they are showing like tissue destruction or just inflamation and functional disturbance or tissue lysis with regenerated and degenerative changes this will help to decide what “type of miasm” is underlying wether its psoric, syphillitic or psychotic type pathology.

Certain symptom are very “peculiar” for the  disease and occurs in few individuals like Keratoderma Blenorrhagica eruption, now location of this eruption will further help individualise the case.

Enthesitis – Inflamation of tendo-achilles and plantar fascitis is  “very specific” to the disease but does not occur in all individuals, so if plantar fascitis or inflamation of tendo-achilles if occurs in someine with this disease then it helps further in individualisation of during homeopathic medicine selection.

Other than this the general health and family background should be noted to derive  constitutional types and association of HLA B27 in 75% of this individual further helps in individualisation and homeopathic medicine selection.

COMMONLY USED HOMEOPATHIC MEDICINES FOR REACTIVE ARTHRITIS

  • PHOSPHORUS
  • ARSENICUM ALBUM
  • RHUS TOXICODENDRON
  • BRYONIA ALBA
  • LEDUM PALUSTURE
  • THUJA OCCIDENTALIS
  • ANTIMONIUM CRUDUM
  • ARGENTUM NITRICUM
  • BORAX
  • MERCURIOUS SOLUBILIS
  • PULSATILLA NIGRICANS

SWINE FLU H1N1

Swine flu is an infection caused by swine flu influenza virus which is common throughout the population worldwide. The disease affects the respiratory tract of pigs and is transmitted to humans.

THE SWINE FLU VIRUS

The influenza virus is a negative sense RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae with three genera Influenza A, B, C.

Swine influenza is known to be caused by Influenza A subtypes. H1N1, H1N2, H3N1 H3N2. In pigs Influenza A virus are divided into subtypes based on 2proteins on surface of virus the haemagglutinin(H) and the neuraminidase (N). There are various types of subtypes of H and N.
Every year new strains of virus evade host defenses.
Another characteristic of type A influenza is that the virus has segmented genome with eight single stranded RNA segments. When the host cell is infected with more than one influenza virus, the genes have the opportunity to get ressorted and produce a different strain altogether. The antigenic shift is responsible for pandemic of influenza which has been observed in the past. Virus acquires the ability to not only infect but spread within the human host.

Influenza B viruses are only known to infect human and seals causing influenza

Influenza C virus infect both human and pigs and does not infect birds.

HISTORY OF SWINE FLU

Swine origin influenza A H1N1 virus was first recognised in the border area of Mexico and United states in April 2009 and during the span of 2 months and was spread with travellers wordlwide resulting in 1st influenza pandemic since 1968. Around mid 20th century identification of influenza sub types became possible allowing accurate diagnosis of transmission to humans. In 2010 the World Health Organisation declared Swine flu pandemic officially.
The term pandemic means that an infection has spread to many countries around the world causing widespread human suffering. This pandemic has become a worldwide concern. A new strain of Swine flu was detected in 2011, it did not affect a large number of people. In 2015-2016 a large outbreak of swine flu killed a huge number of people. Another outbreak 2017 affecting various people at different places and most recent is 2018 outbreak

The influenza virus is a negative sense RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae with three genera Influenza A, B, C.

Swine influenza is known to be caused by Influenza A subtypes. H1N1, H1N2, H3N1 H3N2. In pigs Influenza A virus are divided into subtypes based on 2proteins on surface of virus the haemagglutinin(H) and the neuraminidase (N). There are various types of subtypes of H and N.
Every year new strains of virus evade host defenses.
Another characteristic of type A influenza is that the virus has segmented genome with eight single stranded RNA segments. When the host cell is infected with more than one influenza virus, the genes have the opportunity to get ressorted and produce a different strain altogether. The antigenic shift is responsible for pandemic of influenza which has been observed in the past. Virus acquires the ability to not only infect but spread within the human host.

Influenza B viruses are only known to infect human and seals causing influenza

Influenza C virus infect both human and pigs and does not infect birds.

EPIDEMOLOGY AND HISTORY OF SWINE FLU VIRUS INFECTION OUTBREAKS

HISTORY

Swine origin influenza A H1N1 virus was first recognised in the border area of Mexico and United states in April 2009 and during the span of 2 months and was spread with travellers wordlwide resulting in 1st influenza pandemic since 1968. Around mid 20th century identification of influenza sub types became possible allowing accurate diagnosis of transmission to humans. In 2010 the World Health Organisation declared Swine flu pandemic officially.
The term pandemic means that an infection has spread to many countries around the world causing widespread human suffering. This pandemic has become a worldwide concern. A new strain of Swine flu was detected in 2011, it did not affect a large number of people. In 2015-2016 a large outbreak of swine flu killed a huge number of people. Another outbreak 2017 affecting various people at different places and most recent is 2018 outbreak.

Influenza A outbreaks occur almost every year although their extent and severity vary.
In the last century, influenza virus caused 3 pandemics, the 1918 spanish flu, 1957 Asian flu, 1968 Hong kong flu. The out breaks differ in extent of spread.
The H1N1 strain responsible for current outbreak of swine origin influenza was first recognised at Mexico and US in 2009, and during a very short spam Swine flu became the 1st pandemic of 21st century. The outbreak has been pandemic in true sense involving more than 170 countries spread all over continents.
As per WHO there is a high risk of overall transmission of Swine flu globally.

SWINE FLU TRANSMISSION

As Swine flu is a viral disease it usully spreads from person to person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets containing virus from affected people who sneeze or cough leading to contamination of air with millions of virus in air.

CLINICAL REPRESENTATION OF SWINE FLU.

Signs and symptoms are similar to seasonal influenza virus or similar to other viral respiratory illness.
A common element of swine flu is upper respiratory symptoms. The patient presents with severe cold, stuffy or running nose combined with head congestion along with watery eyes associated with itching. Sore throat.
Severe bodyache, includes muscle weakness. Feeling of general malaise or weakness are very common with overall discomfort. The patient usually feels so weak that it hampers his daily activities. Presents with continous drowsiness.
In some cases of swine flu, gastrointestinal symptoms like stomach ache, cramps, nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea occur.

PREVENTION

  • Patients affected with swine flu should take necesary precautions.
  • Stay at home if you are sick.
  • Maintain distance from people so that you do not pass the infection to others.
  • Always wear a well fitted masks in public places.
  • Cover your mouth and nose while coughing and sneezing.
  • Wash your hands with soap. Make sure you wash your hand for atleast 15 sec. Use an alcohol based gels or foam sanitizers.
  • Use disposable tissues
  • Take proper rest.
  • Necesary preventive measures in people who are travelling or residing in areas where a swine flu outbreak have occured
  • Avoid close contact with people who have been affected with swine flu.
  • Always cover your mouth while coughing or sneezing.
  • Wash hands frequently as chances of infection through contact.
  • Maintiain proper hygeine.
  • Practice a healthy lifestyle habits such as nutritious diet, proper sleep, excercise.
  • Drink plenty of fluids.

DIAGNOSIS OF SWINE FLU

Swine flu is diagnosed based on the clinical representation of patient. Diagnosis can be made if the person has recently travelled to an area where there is Swine flu outbreak in humans.
If you residing in locality where there is epidemic of Swine flu, or if you come in contact with the influenza virus and symptoms of flu appears.
First thing you need to do is Rapid Influenza Diagnostic Test.. It is a blood test which detects whether the flu is of type A or type B. If type A turns to be positive then you should further go for PCR test for confirmation of subtype. It is advisable to straight away go with PCR in high risk group and in epidemic prone areas.

URINARY TRACT INFECTION

Urinary Tract Infection is an infection in any part of the urinary system i.e kidney, ureters, bladder and urethra.

Infection of the urinary tract is a very common and distressing condition.

Acute infections of urinary tract can be anatomically subdivided into two general catagories.
Lower urinary tract infection
Upper urinary tract infection

Infections at these sites may occur together or independently and may be asymptomatic or may present with clinical symptoms.

When there are recurrent infections it can be classified as relapses or reinfections. Most relapses are thought to result from unresolved prior infections.

CAUSES OF URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS

Many different micro organisms can infect the urinary tract, most common agents are the gram negative bacilli.

Ecoli causes approximately 80% of acute infections in patients and other organisms are proteus, klebsiella, enterobacter, pseudomonas, chalamydia etc.

PATHOGENESIS of URINARY TRACT INFECTION

Adhesion of bacteria is the first step in the pathogenesis of Urinary tract infectiion.

The entry of uropathogens into the urinary tract is usually from periurethral colonisation of females or often from prepucial colonisation of uncircumcised males. About 75% of organisms is distal urethra are a mixture of lactobacilli, streptococci, staphylococci, while remaining 25% are anaerobic. When the host defenses are weakened urtheral colonisation and mucosal adhesion of bacteria occurs.

Usually in a normal healthy individual a series of non specific and specific mechanisms prevent this process.

The non specific mechanisms are the flushing effect of urine, normal vaginal flora and tamm horsfall glycoprotein which complexes with bacteria and are eliminated through urine.

Circulating IgG and IgM in upper urinary tract act as specific immunological mechanisms.

Secretory IgA in the upper and lower urinary tract particularly the urethra provide a barrier to ascent of infection. In addition to humoral defence, cellular response also plays a role in preventing ascent of infection.

FACTORS INVOLVED IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF URINARY TRACT INFECTION

HOT SUMMER CLIMATE

There is lots of water loss from the body surface through pirspiration in form of sweat which causes depletion, it sufficient water is not consumed thos might lead to change in ph level of urine making it acrid which may excoriate the inner linning of urinary tract thus making it more sussceptible to infections.

LOW WATER INTAKE

Low water intake causes increase in concerntration of metanolites in urine making it more corrosive in nature to inner linning of urinary system thus damaging it and giving opportunity yo organsims to infect and colonise in urinary system.

DIABETES

High sugar levels are associated with infections as they not only reduce immunity but also provide with instant and easy source energy for micro-organosms to multiply and grow

IMMUNOCOMPROMISED INDIVIDUALS

Immunocompromised imdividuals especially those on therapy with drugs known to suppress immunity, individuals with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection, Diabetics and other immunodeficiency disease conditions provide easy breeding ground for opportunistic micro-organisms to infect immunocompromised tissue of urinary system.

PRE-EXISTING GENITAL INFECTIONS

Pre-existing genital infection may fimd route from genitals to urinary tract and may infect it as well which is more common in females also in females ots seen that skin infecyions of vulva may traverse intonthe urinaty system and may infect it.

FEMALE ANATOMY

Female are more prone to the development of Urinary tract infection. Women have a shorter urethra, wbich shortens the distance that bacteria must travel into the urinary tract. Gram negative enteric organisms risiding near anal region colonise the periurethral region and cause infections.

USE OF BIRTH CONTROL DEVICES

Women who use diaphragm as a birth control have a high risk of urinary tract infections.

MENOPAUSE

After menopause there is decline in the oestrogen level causes changes in urinary tract and that make a women more vulnerable to infections.

SEXUAL ACTIVITY

Sexually active women tend to have more tendency to have urinary tract infections, as the act facilitates the entry of introital bacteria into the bladder.

BLOCKAGES IN URINARY TRACT

Any impediment to free flow of urine as with renal calculi, strictures,, tumors, prostatic hypertrophy favour the development of Urinary tract infections.

URINARY TRACT ABNORMALITIES

Babies born with urinary tract abnormalities that hinder the flow of urine to leave the body normally or cause urine to back flow urine up in urethra have a increased risk of Urinary tract infection.

CATHETHER USE

Use of catheters have a high risk of urinary tract infections. This may include in patients who are hospitalised, amd im some cases it also advised on daily basis especially in patients with urethral stricture, patients who are having neurological abnormalities, paraylsed patients which make it difficult to control their ability to urinate.

CLINICAL FEATURES OF URINARY TRACT INFECTION

The clinical features depend on whether the infection is on upper tract or lower tract.

CYSTITIS OR URETHRITIS

Infection in bladder is common in women during thier reproductive years. Patient with cystitis or urethritis may be asymtomatic or may present with frequency, urgency, suprapubic pain and dysuria, nocturia, urge incontinence, a sensation of incomplete bladder emptying may accompany lower urinary tarct infection.
The urine may have offensive odour and haematuria occurs in 30% of cases. On physical examination usually reveals mild suprapubic or urethral tenderness.

PROSTATITIS AND SEMINAL VESICULITIS

The usual symptoms of prostatic infection are frequency, dysuria, perineal or groin pain, difficulty in voiding urine and painful ejaculation. Relapsing urinary tract infections are associated with above symptoms in men are suggestive of chronic bacterila prostatitis.

ACUTE PYELONEPHRITIS

Emphysematous pyelonephritis is a particularly severe form of upper urinary tract infection.

Symptoms of acute pyelonephritis include fever with chills, nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea.

Physical examination reveals tachycardia, myalgia, renal angle tenderness. Most patients have significant leucocytosis and bacteria detectable in gram stained urine.

CHRONIC PYELONEPHRITIS

Chronic pyelonephritis is known to develop as a result of infection and vesicoureteric reflex. It is a form of upper urinary tract infection. Many patients remain asymtomatic for a long time and present with symptoms later.

ROLE OF HOMOEOPATHY IN TREATMENT OF URINARY TRACT INFECTION

Homoeopathy plays a very significant role in the management of Urinary tract infections. In homoepathy we adopt a holistic approach to Urinary tract infection with a detailed case analysis and individualisation of each patient.

FEW INDICATED HOMOEOPATHIC REMEDIES

CANTHARIS

Cantharis has main sphere of action on the genito urinary system.Indicated in case of urinary tract infection. Cantharis patient has intolerable urging and tenesmus. Frequent urge to pass urine. This is one of the important symptom which points towards cantharis. There is intense burning and cutting pain during urination. Severe back pain, violent paroxysms of cutting burning pain in whole renal region. Urine scalds and is passed drop by drop.

STAPHYSAGRIA

Staphysagria is more commonly indicated in Urinary tract infections in female. Suited to women who are newly married and have ineffectual desire to urinate, as a result of sexual activity.,often known as honeymoon cystitis. Presents with burning in urethra while urinating. Feeling of pressure on the bladder with sensation as if undone completely. Sensation as if drop of urine is rolling continously along urethra. Prostatic enlargements which cause infections in urinary tract can also be very well managed with Staphysagria.

BENZOIC ACID

Benzoic acid is indicated remed in urinary tract infections, when there is a very strong smell in urine, the odour is as if that from horse urine. Another strong symptom that indicates Benzoic acid is intense pain in urethra. Also indicated in cystitis. The complaints of benzoic acid are changeable. When the urine is scanty or light he suffers from backache and pain in joints. When the urine is copious and plenty and urine is full of deposits he feels better. Presents with alternate light and heavy urine.

APIS MELLIFICA

Apis mellifica acts on the urinary system and presents with burning at the end of urination. The urine may be scanty,despite scanty urine the patient has constant urge to urinate. Urine is dark coloured or muddy. Presents with burning and soreness when urinating. A great anasarca appears and the face is swollen with bags under eyes. Great agony in voiding urine. Unconcious flow of urine.

SARSAPARILLA

Sarsaparilla acts through the ganglionic system upon the genitourinary system . Its is one of the indicated remedies in irinary tract infection when urine is either too often or too copious pale and scanty. There is much pain at the conclusion of passing urine, which is almost unbearable. Patient has to wake up two to three times at night to pass urine. Pain in the bladder region or lower abdomen extends to back.

BERBERIS VULGARIS

Berberis vulgaris has affinity towards the genito urinary system. Berberis is indicated in urinary tract infections. Cystitis with twings of cutting pain or burning sensation that extends towards the urethra and its opening may indicate the need for this remedy. There is no desire to urinate. After emptying the bladder the patient feels some urine is left inside, undone sensation. There are irregularities of urine, with copius discharges. There is Changeability of urine like benzoic acid.

LYCOPODIUM

Lycopodium is one of the indicated remedy in urinary tract infection. A marked feature or one of the prominent feature of lycopodium is polyuria during night must arise at night and pass large quantity of urine.,altough day time urine is normal. Painful urge to urinate, but has to strain to pass urine. Pain is felt at the back before passing urine. Flow of urine is slow and with feeble stream. The urine is often muddy with brick dust or with red sand deposits.

SULPHUR

Sulphur has a important role in urinary tract infection. The patient has unsual desire to pass urine at night. The most characteristic symptom that indicates the use of sulphur is great burning sensation while passing urine. Frequent micturation, enuresis. Mucus and pus in urine, parts sore over which it passses. Has sudden call to urinate must hurry. The urine scalds the urethra while passing urine and smartine is so intense that it lasts for a long time after urination.

CLEMATIS ERECTA

Clematis has main sphere of action on the genito urinary tract. Its is very effective for urine infections in patients who have suffered from sexually transmitted disease. Slow inflammation of urethra will infilterate and urethra feels like a large whip cord, painful on pressure. Patient cannot emtpty bladder completely. He has undone sensation, when he appears to have finished urinating, it wil keep dribbling often. Presents with frequent scanty urination.

PREVENTIVE MEASURES IN URINARY TRACT INFECTION

Some useful steps to reduce your risk of Urinary tract infections

Stay hydrated, drink plenty of liquids. Drinking enough water helps to dilute your
urine and hence ensures that you will urinate more frequently allowing the bacteria to be flushed from your urinary tract.

Urinate frequently, do not hold urine when you need to urinate. Holding urine when you need to evacuate can help the bacteria present that may develop into infectiions.

Emtpty your bladder soon after intercourse and drink enough water to flush out the bacterias.

Maintain good hygeine. Keep genital area clean, after urinating and bowel movement always clean the area from front to back by doing so it wil prevent bacteria in anal region from spreading to vagina and urethra.

Avoid using scented feminine products and use of douches, diaphragms which can cause irritation and infections which contribute to bacterial growths leading to urinary tract infections.

Wear comfortable cotton undergarments as other fabrics can trap moisture creating a potential breeding for bacteria. Avoid tight clothing.

TINEA INFECTIONS DERMATOPHYTOSIS

Tinea is the term used to describe a group of contagious skin infections caused by different type of fungi.

Dermatophytes are a group of organisms that are able to breakdown the skin tissues.

Dermatophytosis is mainly caused by microsporum, trichophyton and epidermophyton.

These dermatophytes grow best in warm and humid environments.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF TINEA INFECTIONS

It affects many areas of skin and depending on thier location and fungal infection it has different names.

Common type of Dermatophytosis depending on the sites are as follows

TINEA CAPITIS

Scalp ringworm causes itchy patches on the head, it can leave bald spots, usually affects children.

TINEA BARBAE

It is the infection of the skin especially beard area and moustache and is usually seen in men.

TINEA CRURIS

It is also known as Jock’s itch. Infection of groin, vulva, inner thighs , buttocks.

TINEA CORPORIS

When Dermatophystosis presents on the parts of body like trunks, hands, feet etc.

TINEA UNGUIUM

It is infection of one or more finger nails or toe nails.

TINEA PEDIS

It is also known as Athlete’s foot, causes infection of the foot or inter digits of foot.

CAUSES OF TINEA INFECTIONS

Dermatophytosis are the group of organisms that are able to break down the skin tissue. The fungi reside in the soil and are involved in decomposition and can infect the living organisms.

Dermatophytes are transmitted from person to person and some are adapted to animals.

Dermatophytosis is mainly caused by microsporum, trichophyton and epidermophyton. These dermatophytes grow best in warm and humid environments.

It can be easily transmitted through skin to skin contact with an infected person or animal or through indirect contact with an object or surface that an infected person or animal has touched.

Bathroom floors, bathmaths, towels, showers and communal bathing, swimming and changing room areas are common source of infection.

On contact with skin, the dermatophyte spread to the surface layers of the skin.

SYMPTOMS OF TINEA INFECTION

Symptoms of the fungal infections vary depending upon the infection and affected tissues and area of the body.

The skin lesions are usually characterised by redness, inflammation that is more severe at the edges with raised and thick edges, it is usually seen that the central area is clear.

SYMPTOMATIC REPRESENTATION OF TINEA DEPENDING ON THE AFFECTED SITE

TINEA CAPITIS

Tinea Capitis is also known as scalp ringworm. It usually affects children. Seen in children with infection of hair and scalp. The infection is characterised by scaly, irregular or well marked redness with patchy hair loss, the patchy areas are dry with loss of hair and minimal inflammation.

TINEA BARBAE

The dermatophytic infection that involves hair and skin of the face that is the beard and moustache. The lesions may include scaling with pus along with redness.

TINEA FACIEI

It is seen on non beard parts of the face.

TINEA CRURIS

This is an acute to chronic infection of the groin and adjacent areas like inner thighs, butocks. The symptoms usually imclude burning, severe itching and redness with scales, raised edges, sharply demarcated borders with clear centre. Skin becomes dark in the centre as the lesion progreses.

TINEA CORPORIS

Tinea Corporis occurs on the trunk, hands and feet. The infection usually tends to spread to other areas. The lesions are usually pink to red or scaly and annular with slightly raised and sharp margins with clear centre. Sometimes lesions may present with pus.

TINEA UNGUIUM

Tinea Unguium is infection of nails characterised by thickened opaque, a discoloured or deformed nails. The nail may be separated from nail bed. Toe nails are more affected than finger nails.

TINEA PEDIS

Tinea Pedis is seen between the digits of feet. Commonly called as athlete’s foot. There is dryness, fissures and scales, moist lesions in some or all spaces. The lesions may be present with scaling of the soles with inflammation and dryness or redness.

ROLE OF HOMEOPATHY IN TINEA INFECTIONS

Homeopathic treatment is very beneficial and effective mode of treatment that boosts the bodys immune process to fight and eradicate fungal infections.
As the infection gets older, it tends to get more resistant to any form of treatment, once external applications are used for months together the infection becomes resistant. Homeopathy plays an important role in such cases.

INDICATED HOMEOPATHIC REMEDIES

SULPHUR

Sulphur is very beneficial homeopathic medicine for various skin diseases. In cases of ring worm lesions sulphur is quiet useful.
The patient presents with intense itching and burning in erruptions. Indicated in cases of infections that have been suppressed by local medications of various kinds.

PSORINUM

Psorinum is one of the indicated remedy for skin infections. Mainly used for ringworm infections of scalp and bends of joints. There is severe itching in the affected area. Itching worse due to warmth of bed. Indicated in tinea capitis. The hair appears dry, rough, and lustreless. Profuse sweating with offensive body odour throughout the body.

SEPIA

Indicated in case of fungal infections appearing in isolated parts of body. Infections can occur on any part of the body, but common location is bends of knees and elbow. The erruptions are accompanied by itching and scratching, no relief from scratching. High senditivity towards cold air.
Irritable, indifferent towards family and friends.

THUJA

Thuja is indicated in skin infections. Main action is on skin. Indicated in case of dermatophytic infection where the erruptions are on the covered parts of the body, worse from scratching, very sensitive to touch. Worse at night from heat of bed, from cold damp air. Scratching and cold bathing makes the condition worse.

GRAPHITES

Graphitis is one of the indicated remedy for jocks itch Tinea Cruris with recurrent episodes. Indicated where the skin is dry, rough with severe itching. Sometimes moist crusty erruptions are seen on the parts. There is oozing of sticky exudation. Graphitis is effective for fungal infection around vulva.

ARSENIC ALBUM

Arsenic album is beneficial in Tinea Capitis. The scalp shows bald spots with intolerable itching with intense burning. The symptoms are usually worse at night. Arsenic alb helps to reduce itching and burning and also helps in regrowth of hair on bald spots.

SILICEA

Silicea is indicated in Fungal infections and dermatophytosis in Delicate pale waxy patient. Scars are painful. Eruptions itch only in the day time and evening. Crippled nails. Indicated in case of Tinea Pedis with offensive sweat, deep cracks between toes with intense itching and burning. Painful foul smelling ulcers of the foot.

PERTROLEUM

Petroleum is indicated in case of Tinea Pedis. Helps to drive away infection of foot. Presents with offensive sweat. Deep cracks between toes with intense itching and burning of skin. Crippled and brittle nails.

TELLURIUM

Tellurium is indicated in Dermatophytosis with lesions on large parts of the body. Usually it covers a broader area of skin. Presents with excessive itching and stinging sensation. Itching day and night. Cold air worsens the itching. Offensive odour from the affected area.

NIPAH VIRUS HOMEOPATHY Controversy – Does Homoeopathy Really Have Prevention or Cure For Nipah Virus Infection?

Nipah Virus Homeopathy Controversy – Does Homeopathy Really Have Prevention or Cure For Nipah Virus Infection?

Nipah Virus Homeopathy controversy has been gaining momentum since few days with many claiming that the claims of homeopathy are false, so whats the truth is lets have the deeper understanding about it.

Nipah Virus outbreak in state of Kerala first noted on 19th of May 2018 and since then the government authorities are on alert and to contain the infection and avert the potential epidemic about 230 doubted cases have being tested of which total 18 have turned out positive of which 16 have already lost their life. which shows that mortality rate of current outbreak is very high compared to average of all past outbreaks one can say almost 100% fatality rate of the current outbreak

THE NIPAH VIRUS HOMEOPATHY CONTROVERSY

Homoeopaths have come out with the medicines that can be indicated or applied in subjects of Nipah Virus Infection after proper homeopathic evaluation. To which believers of orthodox wide spread conventional mode of treatment, the allopathy, have come up with a very rebellious mood as usual claiming that homoeopathy cant work in Nipah Virus Infection and rebuting our claims even without giving a thought find out its practicality.

Homeopathy has since long came in for the disposal of mankind whenever there were epidemics and outbreaks of disease and allopathy had failed.

EXPLANATION – WHETHER HOMEOPATHY HAS MEDICINE FOR NIPAH VIRUS INFECTION OR NOT

Now the question arises right now is of the current outbreak of Nipah Virus Infection and its homeopathic treatment whether homeopathy has medicines for prevention and/or cure of Nipah Virus Infection or not.

Homoeopathy is based on principle of  “likes cure likes” its called the principle of similars ( just like vaccines ) ; where as the Allopathy is based on dissimilar sufferings and so aptly the name allopathy to this system was given non other than by the Founder of Homeopathy Dr Samuel Christian Fredrich Hahnemann and since that time Allopath’s opposition to this system Homeopathy is continuing.

In homeopathy we do not treat “the disease” but we treat “the person in disease” – Various Disease causing agents have different type of virulence, each which very specific set of characters, now our immune system responds in various ways to various antigens and also its very much subjective in various individuals. So in homeopathy we first take into consideration the type of response of immune system and what it has to express and how its responding to this antigenic stimulus as it is the one which is going to fight out the disease.

So in homeopathy we do not have name of the disease and its medicine but we have the set of symptoms that our immune system is expressing and its matching remedies. So its based completely on symptom similarity principle with which homeopathy since ages have cured many so-called incurable conditions because we believe in treating the Person in Disease by understanding what its immune system is expressing and trusting and strengthening it so that it can drive out the antigen with its dynamic, intelligent, automatic, autocratic, powerful nature of force which has helped life forms to evolve from unicellular to various life forms so different from each other and with different abilities.

In Homeopathy rather than hitting the virus or the antigen directly with noxious agents and damaging the system even further we simply trust the unquestionable power and ability of our immune system and try to strengthen it by stimulating it so that it can drive the virus out so homeopathy shows better success rate in treating viral conditions compared to allopathic mode of treatment.

Now in Nipah Virus Infection in past outbreaks we have seen that there are IgG and IgM antibodies against Nipah Virus have been formed in individuals that have survived the infection. so the immune sytem of many is strong enough to fight out the virus and survive.

CONCLUSION TO THE CONTROVERSY OF NIPAH VIRUS HOMEOPATHY

So homeopathy has a role in the Nipah Virus Infection disease and homoeopathic medicines if selected as per symptoms of patients affected by the disease and principle of organon of medicines should help the Nipah Virus Infected subjects to recover from the infection completely and also prevent the condition as mention in principle of Genus Epidemicus.

Journalists and critics should responsibly first understand homeopathy and its principles which are quite different than allopathy before jumping up on conclusion that homeopathy has no solution, similarly homeopathic doctor or association should be very careful mentioning indicated medicines and should not make any unproven claims of sure cure or sure prevention and should be very clear that the medicines are only indicated as per homeopathic principles.

So health authorities with unprejudiced and unpolitically motivated mind should come forward and consider the goods of the homeopathic system of medicines which the homeopathic system has delivered since ages and should apply in the preventive medicine for nipah virus and treatment of Nipah Virus Infection to confirm and perfect the homeopathic  community claims, Especially when where allopathy is absolutely failing!

ALSO READ

https://atomictherapy.org/nipah-virus/

NIPAH VIRUS on Killing Spree In India – Its Homoeopathic Medicines

Nipah Virus (NiV) Outbreak In India Claims 13 Lives

Nipah Virus infection outbreak,which is fast spreading and has fatality rate 0f 50-70%, has gripped Kerala (Kozhikode) in fear of wider epidemic.

Already 13 people are reported dead till now, of which 3 of them were from same family.

What Is Nipah Virus Infection?

  • Nipah Virus Infection is Viral Zoonosis that means infectious diseases that can be transmitted  transmitted to Humans from Animals.
  • Nipah virus was first found in Pteropid Fruit Bats of Pteropodidae family.
  • Nipah virus is a RNA virus of Paramyxoviridae family of Order Mononegavirales and belongs to Genus- Henipavirus of species Nipah and virus name Nipah Virus (Niv).
  • In Humans Mortality Rate is very high , as per statistics of past outbreaks, almost 50-70% of patient infected will die.
  • The first documented outbreak of Nipah Virus Infection in human was in 1998 in Malaysia leaving 100 dead at that time.
  • Till date less than 600 cases of human infection of NiV are reported globally of which almost 60% had died.

Causes Of Nipah Virus Infection

  • Direct Contact with infected Humans or Animals, especially Fruit Bats and Pigs.
  • Half eaten fruits by Fruit Bats.
  • Contact with Fruit Bat droppings.
  • Contact with body secretion of infected Humans or Animals.

Signs and Symptoms of Nipah Virus Infection

Nipah Virus Infection in humans is very fast progressing fatal condition.

Incubation period of Nipah virus is 3-14 days during this period the first symptom starts to appear.

It presents itself in very initial phase as

  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Many cases presents breathing difficulty and other respiratory complaints these patients are more contagious compared to those who do not show respiratory complaints.
  • Few cases may have Pain in Abdomen, Nausea and vomitting.

Followed by symptoms of Central Nervous System (CNS) involvement, Encephalitis.

  • Drowsiness
  • Disorientation
  • Mental Confussion
  • In some cases blurred vision
  • And soon within 24-48 hrs of initial first symptom patient goes into Comma.

Diagnosis of Nipah Virus Infection

In case of an Epidemic or High Risk Group, it should be suspected in patients showing signs of illness and soon diagnosis should be established using Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) of the sample taken from Throat Swab or Cerebrospinal Fluid, which directly detects virus proteins.

Viral RNA can be isolated from the saliva of infected person.

IgG and IgM antibody detection is possible only if the patient has survived the NiV Infection as most of the patients succumb to death even before this antibody appears in blood so its done in those patients who have survived and are on recovery phase and had not done RT-PCR for diagnosis, so just for confirming NiV Infection in those patients this antibody IgG and IgM tests are done.

And in those who have died and are suspected of death from NiV Infection, on those dead bodies, an Immunohistochemistry of tissue collected during autopsy is done this helps to get exact numbers of death due to disease and establish the scale of epidemic.

Treatment of Nipah Virus Infection

In Allopathy there are no medicines available against Nepah Virus and the treatment is based usually only on supportive measures.

In homoeopathy there are medicines available which are indicated in Nipah Virus Infection diesase condition.

Homoeopathic Medicines for Nipah Virus Infection

Very fast acting acute remedies, with profound effect on Central Nervous System and Respiratory system, needs to be selected for treating patients with nepah virus infection.

The best Homoeopathic remedies that are indicated as per Genus Epidemicus in Nipah Virus Infection Outbreak are

Notice :- Under mentioned Homoeopathic Medicines should be taken only under guidance and observation of qualified and registered homoeopathic practitioner.

  1. Aconitum Napellus or Belladonna are suited best in initial stage initial 12-24 hrs of onset of first symptom when patient shows initial signs of illness that is fever and headache, this medicines can oslo be started in doubted cases without any side effects.  (Note: Indian Homoeopathic Medical Association IHMA- Kerala based on its study report has proposed BELLADONNA to be probable PREVENTIVE HOMEOPATHIC MEDICINE FOR NIPAH VIRUS  INFECTION in humans)
  2. Gelsemium Sempervirens is best indicated when symptoms of central Central nervous system have developed like Dullness, Diziness, Drowziness, Disorientation, Blurring of vision tremors and trembling.
  3. Nyctanthes Arbortristis in Homoeopathic Mother Tincture from is indicated in general.
  4. Plumbum Metallicum or Ipecacuana is indicated in patient who shows symptoms of pain in abdomen, nausea, vomitting.
  5. Aspidosperma Quebracho or Blatta Orientalis or Arsenicum Album are indicated homoeopathic remedies in patients showing symptoms of respiratory tract involvement with breathlessness and choking sensation.
  6. Stramonium or Baptisia or Zincum Metallicum are best suited in later stages qhen patient is in delerium or comatose state.

Along with these homoeopathic medicines it is necesarry to isolate patient under hospital admission medical observation with proper supportive and symptomatic treatment.

Prevention of Nipah Virus Infection

  • Isolate infected persons.
  • Avoid travelling to affected regions.
  • Make sure food and drinks might not have been contaminated by bats.
  • Avoid eating raw fruits.
  • Do not eat fruits seems to be damaged by Fruit Bats.
  • Stay away from Bat and other animal droppings.
  • Do not drink Taddy brewed in open containers near palm trees.
  • Avoid Meat and Animal Products in the region of outbreak.
  • Maintain proper cleanliness and self hygiene especially sanitary hygiene.
  • Wear N95 mask when at public places if you are working, staying or travelling in region of outbreak.
  • Avoid travelling to regions having fruit bats, especially caves and under those trees where bats resides.
  • Avoid contact with pigs and pig handlers.

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Also Read

https://atomictherapy.org/nipah-virus-homeopathy-controversy/

http://atomictherapy.org/h7n4/

http://atomictherapy.org/hong-kong-flu-h3n2/

http://atomictherapy.org/cough-syrup-harmful/

H7N4 TYPE BIRD FLU First Ever Human Case in China

H7N4 Infection first ever human case reported in  Changzhou of Jiangsu Province of China

A 68 year old women is the first ever reported human to be infected with H7N4 virus, she showed first symptom of flu on 25th December christmas day of 2017 and was admited in hospital on 1st January 2018 was discharged on 22nd January 2018 and the case was confirmed of H7N4 viris infection and reported to health authorities on 14th February Valentines Day  of 2018. She was reportedly in contact with live poultry before she started developing symptoms.

There was a minor reported epidemic in birds and poultry back in 1997 but there was never a record of this H7N4 infecting any human till date.

H7N4 virus is subtype of Influenza A virus of orthomyxoviridae family or in laymen terms called bird flu virus family. Influenza A virus are negative – sense, single stranded,  segmented RNA Viruses. These virus occasionally causes epidemics in wild aquatic birds and then when they come in contact with domestic birds and poultry they infect them and eventualy the infection may pass to humans. Its very rare for these virus to reach humans but whenever they infect humans the consequences are severe and in epidemic and pandemic scale.

Following are known subtypes of Influenza A virus that can infect humans and are listed as per number of known pandemic human deaths.

  • H1N1- Spanish Flu(1918) or Swine Flu recently
  • H2N2- Asian Flu(1950)
  • H3N2 – Hong kong Flu(1968) and 2018
  • H5N1- Avian Flu-Global influenza pandemic (mid-2000) – with fatality rate of 50% it becomes the most falat virus of all know Influenza virus that infect humans it also causes diarrhoea.
  • H1N2- currently endemic in pigs and humans.
  • H7N7
  • H7N2
  • H9N2
  • H7N3
  • H5N2
  • H10N7
  • H7N4 – bird flu – one case reported in China in 2018 which completely recovered

NIPAH VIRUS on Killing Spree In India – Its Homoeopathic Medicines

Hong Kong Flu Epidemic 2018 The Virus That Killed Million In A Year

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HONG KONG FLU Epidemic 2018 The Virus That Killed Million In A Year

Hong Kong Flu – The Virus That Killed A Million In A Year is Active Again In 2018

Hong Kong Flu Epidemic is Back And Is On A Killing Spree It Has Killed More Than 100 In Just A Month In 2018.

Do you remember the Great Flu Pandemic of 1968, who killed estimated 1million people world wide within 7months. The deadly H3N2 virus has raised its ugly head again and is on a killing spree, it has killed more than 120 people including two below 18 yrs of age till February 2018 that is in just a month of outbreak. Again it has broke out in same region and all the schools and kindergartens of Hong Kong will remain closed till 27 february 2018.

H3N2 is strain of influenza A virus, the orthomyxoviridae family – these are simgle stranded segmented RNA-Virus and they have numerous subtypes which are named by numbers based on type of Heamagglutinin “H number” and “N number” for type of Neuraminidase.

Following are known subtypes of Influenza A virus that can infect humans and are listed as per number of known pandemic human deaths.

  • H1N1- Spanish Flu(1918) or Swine Flu recently
  • H2N2- Asian Flu(1950)
  • H3N2 – Hong kong Flu(1968) and 2018
  • H5N1- Avian Flu-Global influenza pandemic (mid-2000) – with fatality rate of 50% it becomes the most falat virus of all know Influenza virus that infect humans it also causes diarrhoea.
  • H1N2- currently endemic in pigs and humans.
  • H7N7
  • H7N2
  • H9N2
  • H7N3
  • H5N2
  • H10N7

Hong Kong Flu virus H3N2 is desendent of H2N2 through antigenic shift, a process in which genes from various subtypes make up a new virus sub type.

In 1968 the outbreak had started in July and within 3 months of outbreak in Hong Kong  it had reached almost all the conitnent including Europe, Australia, Asia, North America, South America. in Hong Kong the virus infected population of 5lacs and the epidemic density in the region was 500 infected people per acre, and had infected 15% of USA population. Though it didnt claim all those who were infected as the fatality index of epidemic by this virus is low 0.5% and falls in category 2 of pandemic severity index and also its seen that every subsequent outbreak is milder as it seems that people in affected region develops some immunity towards N2 at every outbreak.

Symptoms of HongKong Flu

Symptoms are similar to that of any other flu and lasts for 4-5 days

  • Cough
  • Cold
  • Conjunctivitis
  • Malaise
  • Bodyaches
  • Headaches
  • Fever
  • Weakness

In severe cases along with above symptoms

  • Difficulty Breathing
  • Severe Debility
  • Blood in Sputum
  • Pneumonia
  • It takes more severe form and is more fatal in people above age of 65years.

Diagnosis

If you are residing in locality where there is epidemic of Hong Kong Flu or you have a travel history in epidemic region or if u have come in contact with person infected with H3N2 and if symptoms of flu appears the first you need to do

Rapid Influeza Diagnostic Test (RIDT) is a blood test which detects wether the flu is of Type A or Type B. If Type A turns out to be positive then you should further go for PCR test for  confirmation of subtype

The RIDT is not much sensitive and its advisable to go straight away with PCR in high risk group and in epidemic prone areas

Treatment and Management

In allopathy there is no medicine that can cure H3N2 infection, so treatment remain symptomatic. if symptoms are mild a person doesnt need to be admitted and can stay under observation of healthcare professional on OPD basis but if symptoms deteriorated then its advisable to admit.

In homoeopathy there is treatment for Hong Kong Flu and medicines differs from patient to patient.

Commonly used Homoeopathic medicines for Hong Kong Flu are

  • Influenzinum
  • Eupatorium Perfoliatum
  • Gelsemium
  • Rhus Toxicodendron
  • Aconitum Napellus
  • Arsenicum Album

Precautions

  • Avoid travelling to epidemic region.
  • Avoid going to public places if you are in epidemic region.
  • It can spread through air so dont stay in room with infected person and maintain at least few feet distance from infected individual. wear mask if required otherwise.
  • Avoid contact with body fluids and secretions wear gloves if requires otherwise.
  • If you are infected with the virus or have flu like symptoms after travel history to epidemic region then isolate yourself so that you dont spread the virus to others and get properly diagnosed and treated.
  • Health authorities should be highly vigilent and keep check on travellers in epidemic region.

NIPAH VIRUS on Killing Spree In India – Its Homoeopathic Medicines

H7N4 TYPE BIRD FLU First Ever Human Case in China

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