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DMD – DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY also called DUCHENNE SYNDROME is a X linked recessive genetic disorder; classified under progressive neuromuscular disorders; where in there is mutation of gene expressing the cytoplasmic protein “Dystrophin” causing muscle weakness and wasting.


Dystrophin expressing gene is one of the longest human genes known with 2.3 megabases present on short arm of chromosome X present at locus xp21,

Various proteins colocalises with dystrophin to form Dystrophin-Associated Protein Complex or Costamere. Costamere is an integral component in maintaining structural-functional integrity of striated muscle cells. As Costamere are responsible for linking of internal cytoskeletal system of each muscle fibers to extracellular matrix of collagen and laminin through cell membrane. So costamere connects sarcomere through sarcolemma to the extracellular matrix. So mutation in gene responsible for expressing cytoplasmic protein dystrophin causes structural-functional loss of muscle cell resulting into muscular dystrophy.

Dystrophin plays major role in function of binding of following molecules

  • Nitric Oxide Synthase
  • Dystroglycan
  • Vinculin
  • Myocin
  • Actin
  • Other proteins
  • Zinc and other metal ion
  • Other cytoskeletal and muscle constituents


  • Regulates Ryanodine-sensitive calcium-release channel activity, release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol by sarcoplasmic reticulum, activity of voltage-gated calcium channel. It is required in activity of Sodium ion transmembrane activity.
  • Downregulates peptidyl-cysteine S-nitrosylation and peptidyl-serine phosphorylation, Cellular protein localization, cellular macromolecular complex assembly, peptide biosynthetic process.
  • Upregulates Neuron differentiation, neuron projection development, sodium ion transmembrane transporter activity.
  • Cardiomyocyte action potential, contractibility by regulating release of sequestered calcium ion thus playing major role in regulating the Heart Rate.
  • Myocyte cellular homeostasis. Myofibril development, sliding, response to stretching, Regulates skeletal muscle contraction by regulating release of sequestered calcium ion, required in cytoskeleton organization.
  • It regulates cellular response to Growth Factor stimulus. Thus it is also required in growth and development of muscle organ.


Duchenne’s Muscular Dystrophy one of the most common type of muscular dystrophy affecting 1 in every 5000 male at birth with life expectancy of affected individuals of around 25 years on an average. Many cases show increase in life expectancy of up to additional 10-15 years with proper care and management.


DMD presents itself with progressive muscle wasting, general weakness fatigue, debility, in later stages complete loss of power in muscles. This loss of power is attributed to muscular dystrophy rather than nerve involvement which is evident on EMG.

Initially there are not many noticeable symptoms but some parents may complaint of child having difficulty in milestone of turning over, or they may say not able to walk properly or “never saw him running or climbing stairs”.

Mental signs and symptoms may start presenting itself more evidently, well in advance, even before physical symptoms become evident. They may show cognitive difficulty, parents may complaint about child having difficulty in talking or getting words, short term verbal memory, many show symptoms of Dyslexia or ADHD and mental symptoms tend to improve after occupational and speech therapy during early childhood but again worsens in later stage of disease.

Physical signs and symptoms starts becoming frankly noticeable only after age of 2-3yrs as described below

General muscle wasting with muscle contractures due to fibrosis the muscles becomes short and they have hypertonicity with much of muscle fibre replaced with fibrous tissue or fat accumution all this gives rise to Pseudo-hypertrophy of muscles especially of calf, hips and shoulders, even tongue becomes thick and enlarged.

At first the muscles of calfs, extensor of knees other muscles of thigh and hip joint are involved then other pelvic muscles and shoulder gets involved so the disease progresses from below upwards

Skeletal deformities due to abnormal muscle tension distribution causing abnormal gait and resultant skeletal deformities like scoliosis, lumbar hyperlordosis

Difficulty walking -typically patient walks on forefeet or toes, running, jumping, hopping, climbing upstairs or down stairs.

Difficulty standing up from lying or sitting posture. Positive Gower’s Sign. If patient is sitting on ground he typically first puts his arms on floor and transfer upper body weight to ground through arms and the lifts pelvic region now with both arms and both knees touching ground and middle body lifted up, he then lifts one knee by putting foot on ground then he works his arms to lift other knee and then stand up by supporting thigh.

Due to muscle dystrophy and weakness patient has abnormal gait and they tend to fall to frequently so they frequently complaint about bodyaches which seems more to be due to trauma due to frequent falls rather than due to disease itself.

In later stages there is complete loss of ability to walk at around 12 yrs of age around and later on at around age of 20yrs there is complete inability to move body from below neck.

Patient’s respiratory muscles gets involved in later stage causing respiratory disorders where in they are required to be assisted with artificial ventilation. Food and fluids pass into respiratory passage. Patient may suffer from severe frequent Pneumonia.

Average life span of person is around 25 years and very few with extreme care have reported to reach out 45yrs of age.

Laboratory Investigations Shows

  • Cardiomyopathies (disorders of heart muscles) causing arrythmias (abnormal heart rhythm)
  • High blood Creatine-Kinase level.
  • Defects in Xp21 gene
  • Biopsy of muscles shows absence of dystrophin
  • High blood Creatine-Kinase level.
  • EMG shows changes of muscle dystrophy rather than nerve involvement


  • DNA testing
  • Muscle Biopsy
  • Prenatal Screening


As DMD is a deep seated genetic complaint that passes on generation to generation. So Homeopathic constitutional approach is required and more the disease becomes deep seated and more it passes on from generation to generation the more it starts manifesting it’s symptoms in mental sphere. So mental symptoms are to be carefully evaluated for Homeopathic individualisation at the same time one should not forget that even though the disease has manifested in mental sphere but it’s more pronounced on physical sphere where it shows typical ascending type of muscle wasting. Muscle dystrophy is due to defective production of dystrophin which primarily is functional disturbance and structural loss is secondary to it. So basically Psora has strongly established itself from generations to generations within the constitution of these patients.


  • Abrotanum – ascending muscle wasting – If one medicine for DMD patients is to be opted, which in most cases will act to certain degree, then my bet will be on abrotanum – personally I have got notable results with this medicine in cases of DMD if posology is well taken care of while administering, as in homeopathy it’s potency selection and repetition is the key to break the case!
  • Baryta Carb
  • Calcarea Carb
  • Calcarea Phos
  • Stannum Metallicum
  • Alfalfa
  • Agaricus Muscarious
  • Arsenicum Album
  • Zincum Metallicum
  • Phosphorus
  • Acidum Nitricum


Exercise -mild non-jarring like swimming helps maintain muscle strength without stressing or damaging it much

Physiotherapy helps to maintain muscle tone.

Supportive rehabilitation kits and orthopedic appliances like braces etc

Artificial respirator support in later stages when respiratory muscles starts weaknening

Pacemakers in patients with arrhythmia


Motor Neuron Disease though most commonly used to mention one specific disease ie Amyotropic Lateral Sclerosis(ALS), Motor Neuron Disease is actually a classification category that comprises all the diseases that are of motor-neurodegeneratory in nature. But Amyotropic Lateral Sclerosis being the most common form of Motor Neuron Disease, it has vaguely become synonymous to its parent classification category.

Diseases Classified Under Motor Neuron Diseases

Diseases are very vaguely placed into this category with inconclusive inclusion and exclusion criteria. Following are the basic disease types that fall under this category or one can say they form this category.

  • Amyotropic Lateral Sclerosis(ALS) or Lou Gehrig’s Disease
  • Progressive Bulbar Palsy(PBP)
  • Progressive Muscular Atrophy(PMA)
  • Primary Lateral Sclerosis(PLS)
  • Pseudobulbar Palsy
  • Monomelic Amyotrophy
  • Other Rare Forms

Motor Neuron Diseases are characterised by progressive muscle weakness and degeneration of motor neuron. But as explained earlier that classification is vague, so not all motor neuron degeneratory disorders fall under this category and rather they are placed into a broader category called “Motor Neuron Disease Disorders” example Spinal Muscular Atrophies falls into this broader category.

Motor Neuron Diseases can be further differentiated based on three creterias as follows

  1. Sporadic or Inherited
  2. Type of Neuron Involved
  3. Pattern of Muscle weakness.

1)Sporadic or Inherited

Except Familial Amyotropic Lateral Sclerosis rest all are Sporadi

2) Type of Neuron Involved

There can be Involvement of neuron in three different patterns

  1. Upper Motor Neuron Degeneration – Except Progressive Muscular Atrophy(PMA) all other types have UMN involvement
  2. Lower Motor Neuron Degeneration – Except Primary Lateral Sclerosis, Pseudobulbar Palsy and Monomelic Amyotrophy rest all have LMN involvement.
  3. Both Upper And Lower Motor Neurons Involved – Types under this category are ALS PBP(bulbar)

3)Pattern of Muscle Weakness.

Pattern of muscle weakness can be in combination of following three factors

  1. Symmetric or Asymmetric
  2. Proximal or Distal
  3. With or Without Sensory Loss.

Based on combination of above three criterion the pattern is categorised into three major pattern of combination.

  1. Asymmetric – Distal -Without Sensory Loss : ALS, PLS, PMA, MMA
  2. Symetric – Without Sensory Loss : PLS, PMA
  3. Symmetric Focal Midline – Proximal : ALS, PBP, PLS


MND can present itself in children or in adults. If the onset is during childhood then it’s usually inherited and in most of the cases it is Familial Amyotropic Lateral Sclerosis. In adults usually it’s found to affect after age of 40years.

Most of the cases of MND tend to progress during course of time and worsen and in many cases they are even fatal depending on type of MND, say for instance ALS is a fatal type where as PLS is not.

Motor Neuron Disease presents itself in various patterns of muscular weakness due to motor neuron degeneration which can show combination of patterns of symmetric or asymmetric, proximal or distal, focal midline or lateral, with or without sensory loss. Some of the signs and symptoms of Motor Neuron Disease are listed below.

  • Muscle Wasting, Twitching, Fasciculations.
  • Atropthy of tongue
  • Brisk reflexes
  • Babinski’s reflex
  • Hoffman’s reflex
  • Increased Muscle tone
  • Difficulty in breathing, aggravated while lying down or on exertion. It may also cause respiratory failure.
  • Dysphagia – Difficulty in swallowing
  • Sialorrhoea – Excessive salivation
  • Dysarthria – Difficulty in speaking
  • Cognitive and behavioral changes like decision making, computing, word fluency, memory etc.

Common Homeopathic Medicines for Motor Neuron Disease

Homeopathic Medicine should be selected as per type of Motor Neuron Disease and it’s symptomatology.

  • Plumbum Metallicum
  • Strycininum
  • Alumina
  • Anacardium Orientale
  • Baptisia Tinctoria
  • Kalium Phosphoricum
  • Ruta Graveolens
  • Syphillinum
  • Medhorrinum
  • Gelsemium Sempervirens
  • Thuja Occidentalis
  • Cactus Grandiflorus
  • Causticum


CARPEL TUNNEL SYNDROME CTS is a condition where in the compression symptoms arise due to bundle compression of structures that pass within carpel tunnel affecting the the Median Nerve.


CARPEL TUNNEL is normal anatomical structure in our body found in every normal individual. It is formed by carpel bones forming a groove as its floor on dorsal side of hand and flexor retinaculum forming the flat roof of carpel tunnel on palmar side of hand.

It provides attachment and passage at the wrist level for the structures to pass through arm to hand. Muscles related to flexing movements of finger pass through this tunnel alomg with median nerve

Structures Passing Through Carpel Tunnel

  • Flexor Digitalis Superficialis – 4 tendons
  • Flexor Digitalis Profundus – 4 tendons
  • Flexor Pollicis Longus – 1 tendon
  • Median Nerve
  • Flexor Carpi Radialis not exactly pass within the carpel tunnel but it traverse through Flexor Retinaculum that is forming the roof of carpel tunnel.


Anything that exerts pressure to median nerve giving rise to nerve compression symptoms cause carpel tunnel syndrome. In most cases the cause remains obscure and are idiopathic. Any inflamatory process or water retention or metabolites deposition within tissue may cause increase in volume of structures and total content within the carpel tunnel and will cause in pressure of whole bundle which may cause Carpel tunnel due to increased bundle pressure, similarly the adjecent structures to carpel tunnel if inflamed or injured or any overgrowth of it, may exert pressure on carpel tunnel and median nerve within giving rise to carpel tunnel syndrome. Mechanical reasons like wear-tear and injuries are mostly regarded as major factors with ageing and certain genetic, structural and physiological anomalies are known to increase the risk of Carpel Tunnel Syndrome.

Age and Gender

  • Age – Ageing plays a major role in development of CTS its more commonly found in age above 40yrs
  • Gender –  Female sex is more prone to this condition compared to male.


  • OCCUPATIONAL – Work related frequent repetitive forceful pressures jerk and vibrations on hand on regular basis where in there is no sufficient time given to repair the wear and tear and the damage tend to accumulate over time.
  • POSTURAL HABBITS such that it exerts unusual strain on hand and wrist on regular basis.
  • INJURIES to wrist distal part of forearm and wrist. Fractures involving radius ulna carpel and metacarpel bones like Colle’s Fracture, Boxer’s Fracture etc.

Genetic and Systemic 

  • Prediabetics and Diabetics
  • Obesity
  • Metabolic Syndrome
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Arcomegaly
  • Amyloidosis
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • Gout
  • Tumours
  • Hereditary Neuropathy with Susceptibility to Pressure Palsy – Carcot Marie Tooth Syndrome casused due to mutation in gene HS3TC2
  • Narrow Carpel Tunnel
  • Certain drugs like Corticosteriods or Oestrogen therapy.


  • Paraesthesia in Index finger, Middle finger, Thumb and the lateral half of  Ring finger
  • Myalgias or neuralgia in forearm upwards to arm, less commonly in wrist and hand
  • Loss of strength of grip and Loss of Manual Dexterity
  • Atrophy of muscles at the base of thumb visible on proximal, thumb-related quadrant of palm (ie proximal lateral quadrant/upper outer quadrant).




TRIGGER FINGER or TRIGGER THUMB is a condition where in joints of one or more of the digits(finger/thumb) gets stucked up/locked up at certain postion which is difficult to move and moving it with force may cause popping or clicking sound with pain.

Though it can present in any sex and at any age, it is more commonly found in females around age of 50-60 yrs.


Its is also termed as digital Stenosing Tenosynovitis, although there is no predominant inflamation to Tendosynovium but inflamation is found in Tendon Sheath. And also its not comfirmed that inflamatory process has any primary role in its development

Though exact cause behind trigger finger/thumb is not known but the risk factors that tend to increase the incidence of this condition are identified

  • Over straining and over use of hand and fingers espescially activities involving prolonged forceful flexion of digits(fingers/thumb) may be occupational or habbitual routine activities.
  • Frequent injuries – occupational, accidental or even injuries of planned surgery of hand especially ofter surgery for carpel tunnel syndrome
  • Systemic connective tissue disorders
  • Autoimmune diseases especially Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Renal Disease
  • DeQuervain’s Diseases
  • Amyloidosis
  • Diabetes Mellitus and Other Metabolic disorders.


  • Though it may involve any digit(thumb/finger) Index finger and Thumb are more frequently involved. One or more digits may be involved.
  • Patient presents with stucked up digit at certain position. It may be at any level from flexed  to extended position usually found at semiflexed position.
  • This locking up may be persistent for a prolonged period of time or may be momentary and recurrent.
  • Aggravations are more commonly experienced at night, especially while holding heavy article with hand or while gripping or applying pressure with fingers or hand.
  • On moving and or forcefully unlocking the stucked finger is bit painful and causes clicking and popping sound
  • In severe cases the finger may be persistently locked for prolonged period of time with constant pain which may also extent to whole hand and wrist.


Diagnosis of trigger finger/thumb is based on clinical symptomatology of the patient where in inflamation or involvement of tendon sheath of flexors is confirmed and excluding probability of other condition like

  • Tumour
  • Sprain of digit
  • Osteoarthritis of metacarpo-phalangeal joint
  • Fracture
  • Tendon Entrapment post-trauma
  • Extensor Apparatus Injury
  • Game Keeper’s Thumb
  • Sesamoid anomaly
  • Dupuytren’s Contracture
  • Focal Dystonia

An injection of lidnocaine in tendon sheath of flexors reduced the pain then it confirms diagnosis Trigger Finger/thumb.


Treatment of trigger finger/thumb is dependent on combination of modalities of physiotherapy, splinting and medication.




Reactive Arthritis was also called Reiter’s Arthritis is RF-negative and HLA-B27 Linked Imflamatory oligoarthritis typical with Enthesitis, accompanied with Inflamatory occular and/or inflamatory genitourinary and other systemic manifestation usually post gastrointestinal or genitourinary infection.

During world war one and two many cases emerged with the Triad of Symptoms viz. Inflamation of Joints, Inflamation of eyes and Inflamation of Uretha. Which drew attention of medical community due to common presentation in many giving it some syndrome like picture. On further investigations it was found out that most of them were exposed to urogenital or Gastro-intestinal infection 1-4 weeks prior to onset of this Triad of Symptoms. This was initially termed as “Fessenger-Leroy-Reiter’s Syndrome” or simply  “Reiter’s Syndrome”. But as the physician Hans Conard Julius Reiter  was involved in attrocities and war crimes with Hitler, so his name was removed and later renamed and termed as “Reactive Arthritis”.


  • AGE – It more frequently affects age group of 20-40 years.
  • SEX – It is more common in Males then in Females.
  • ETHNICITY – Due to its association with HLA-B27 it is frequently found in white race compared to dark race as comparatively HLA-B27 occurs more commonly in white population.
  • RISK FACTOR – Person with HIV positive status are more prone to develop reactive arthritis.


The onset of symptoms of Reactive Arthritis typically starts 4-35 days after an initial infection of gastro-intestinal system or genito-urinary system.


Reactive arthritis in most of the cases presents where patient cant – SEE, PEE, climb the TREE! due to following Classical Triad of Symptoms of reactive arthritis


Oligoarthritis involving less than five joints. It may frequently involve knee and sacroilliac joint as well. May present itself in additive pattern where it starts with one joint and add another joints subsequently or it may be migratory in pattern where the set of inflamed joints keep changing by addition and simultaneous substraction of joints involved.


Inflamation of genitourinary system classically presents itself at the onset of the disease. Not always but in many its typically after initial sexual exposure. It presents as frequent burning micturation, uritheritis, prostatitis, balanitis in men and salpingitis, vulvitis and vaginitis in women.


Occular Inflamation may present itself as mild conjunctivitis or uveitis in 75% of cases with gastrointestinal origin and 50% of cases with urogenital  involvement. patients have intermittent irritation in eyes with blurred vision typically commences at onset of disease.


  • Few patients also presents with peculiar symptom which is specific to reactive arthritis, its Keratoderma Blenorrhagica which are small hard nodule commonly appear on soles occasionally on palms and rarely on other parts of body subcutaneous nodules are not incluced. Even in absence of above mentioned triad of symptom the presence of Keratoderma Blenorrhagica is diagnostic for reactive arthritis.
  • In reactive arthritis; typical to HLA B27 related immunological reactions; involves Entheses that is where skeletal muscles attaches with bones through tendons, where it causes Enthesitis and tendon inflamation especially the tendo-achilles and also fascia in particular Plantar Tendinitis.
  • Occasionally patients also suffer from dactilitis giving finger sausage-like apperance “sausage finger” due to inflamation.
  • Mucocutaneous involvement presents as ulcerative or non ulcerative stomatitis, apthous ulcers and geographic tongue are also seen as presentation of this disease
  • Cardiac involvement causing pericarditis and aortic regurgitation in cases which do no recover soon or if its recurring or progressive.
  • Gastrointestinal manifestation like pain and cramps with frequent semiformed stools with mucous and insome cases blood due to  inflamation and ulcceration in gastrointestinal tract.

Most of the cases of Reactive Arthritis recover within six months, in many cases it keeps comming back time and again and in few it becomes chronic and progressive which may increase risk of severe complications.


In chronic progressive and recurring cases the patient may develop following complications

  • Ankylosing Spondylosis
  • Disabling Arthritis
  • Aortitis
  • Aortic Regugitation
  • Conduction defects of Heart
  • Pericarditis
  • Amyloid deposits
  • Immunoglobulin A Nephropathy


Reactive Arthritis is is HLA B27 linked inflamatory arthritis and enthesitis preceeded by a spell of infection either of genito-urinary system  or gastro-intestinal system by following commonly involved organisms


  • Chlamydia Trachomatis
  • Ureaplasma Urealyticum


  • Salmonella Spp.
  • Shigella Spp.
  • Campylobacter Spp.
  • Yersinia Spp.

4-35 days after the spell of urethritis or food poisoning by above mentioned organisms the symptoms of reactive arthritis sets in, where the synovial fluid has negative culture ans is free from infection and but the HLA B27 linked  inflamation is thought to be triggered due to

  • Autoimmune reaction due to cross reactivity of micro-organism antigen with joint tissue  or
  • Micro-organism antigenic components that may have settled in joint tissue.


Clinically the Reactive Arthritis can be diagnosed with help of Sensitivity and Specificity Guidlines laid down by American College of Rheumatology, for clinical diagnosis with given set of presenting symptom, its as follows

  1. Arthritis > 1 month with Urethritis and/or cervicitis has  sensitivity of 84.3% and specificity of 98.2%.
  2. Arthritis > 1 month with Urethritis or Cervicitis or bilateral Conjunctivitis has Sensitivity of 85.5% Specificity of 96.4%.
  3. Arthritis, Urethritis and Conjunctivitis has Sensitivity of 50.8% and sensitivity of 98.8%.
  4. Arthritis > 1 month, Conjunctivitis and Urethritis has Sensitivity 48.2% and Specificity of 98.2%.

Patients falling in above criteria or those showing just Keratoderma Blenorrhagica without any other symptoms and other suspected cases can be sent for following test for further evaluation.

  • HLA B27 testing
  • Urine routine and culture
  • STOOL Routine and culture
  • Throat swab culture
  • Cervix and Urethral swab culture
  • Erythrocytes Sedimentation Rate
  • C-Reactive Protein Test


Being an immune mediated systemic reaction that too the one that is triggered with different causative agents and even to same agents different individuals will respond differently.

Though they may have same set of general symptoms like the classical triad of reactive arthritis but intensity of each of the symptom of triad will differ in each individual,

Now this is where the homeopathic individualisation process starts. In Homeopathy we believe that though majority of human genome is the same but the minor variations in gene and the epigenome make the whole lot of difference in various characteristerics of each individual, similarly their immune reaction also varies, so every person should have individualised medicine.

Homeopathic Treatment is based on symptom similarity and individualisation of case based on peculiar symptoms based on which the case is individualised and medicine is selected.

Alternatively as per Homeopathic principle of Genus Epidemicus or pathology based symptomatology there can be disease specific homeopathic medicine derived from common symptomatic representation of a disease condition in a group of population.

Now this can not be the most similimum homeopathic prescription but roughly it can hit the disease condition within an indivudual though not accurate but will yeild some results in most of the cases.

To yield best homeopathic results there can be no generalised common approach for all cases.

But still if we have to attempt common standardised pathology based approach then to give some guidelines on homeopathic approach towards cases of reactive arthritis I have attempted following rough guidelines which may help to give some vision in approach towards such cases.

Its seen that in few case it begins after gastro-intestinal infection and in some case post genito-urinary infection. So this will further guide determining “morbid cause” behind the disease directing us in homoeopathic similimum medicine selection.

Now reactive Arthritis shows a triad of symptom in most of the cases. So this triad helps us to reach to group of medicines with such combination of symptoms.

Intensity, occurance of symptoms and its sequence in triad differs in each individuals. For example

  • In some person urogenital symptoms may be more severe compared to occular symptoms or arthritis symptoms, where as in others arthritis and ocular symptoms would be more severe than urogenital symptoms.
  • Some may not have occurence of  conjunctivitis
  • In some all three triad occur at a time where as in some patients it may occur gradually one after another in different sequence.

All this helps us find out the “seat of disease” in an individual and its degree of affinity towards various organs which can be related to homeopathic medicines during selection process.

Further arthritis may show different pattern like

  • progressive
  • migratory
  • additive
  • symetry
  • predominantly involved joint
  • sequence of joint involvement
  • number of joints involved
  • severity
  • intensity
  • type of sensation and other symptoms

Also similarly symptoms of occular involvement and urogenital involvement should be take in to account in absolute detail. This further helps refine and classify the patient and the respective medicines to be repertorised.

Which other systems and organs are involved like mucous membranes, skin, heart, kidney etc and what type of pathology they are showing like tissue destruction or just inflamation and functional disturbance or tissue lysis with regenerated and degenerative changes this will help to decide what “type of miasm” is underlying wether its psoric, syphillitic or psychotic type pathology.

Certain symptom are very “peculiar” for the  disease and occurs in few individuals like Keratoderma Blenorrhagica eruption, now location of this eruption will further help individualise the case.

Enthesitis – Inflamation of tendo-achilles and plantar fascitis is  “very specific” to the disease but does not occur in all individuals, so if plantar fascitis or inflamation of tendo-achilles if occurs in someine with this disease then it helps further in individualisation of during homeopathic medicine selection.

Other than this the general health and family background should be noted to derive  constitutional types and association of HLA B27 in 75% of this individual further helps in individualisation and homeopathic medicine selection.




Frozen Shoulder also called Adhesive Capsulitis of shoulder joint is painful stiffness limiting range of motion of shoulder joint caused due to inflammation related pathophysiology in capsule of shoulder joint.



Exact cause of Frozen Shoulder remains unclear but there are many factors that increases the risk and lead to frozen shoulder



Frozen shoulder is more common in females than in males


Person above 40yrs of age are more prone to this condition


  • Injury to shoulder joint involving any of its companent especially gleno-humeral joint capsule or rotator cuff.
  • Sports persons typically develop calcifications of tendons around shoulder joint and also in joint structures due to repeated injury and result of prolonged inflamation such persons are at high risk of developing frozen shoulder.


  • Injuries to arm and neck may indirectly affect shoulder joint, due lack of motion in general of that region as a whole and changes pattern of gait and movements of that region.
  • Immobility or reduced mobility post surgerr with general debility and delayed recovery.
  • Immobility post stroke.


  • Certain congenital structural anomaly of Musculoskeletal framework which has influence on movement, gait and weight distribution pattern on shoulder joint in abnormal pattern, which may put the person at risk of develooing Frozen Shoulder.
  • Kyphosis or Scoliosis or other congenital or acquired spinal anomaly especially those above thoracic spinal level may increase risk of frozen shoulder.
  • Patients with cervical spondylosis are at risk of developing frozen shoulder.




  • Pain in affected shoulder aggravates on movement
  • Loss of rang in motion of affected shoulder joint

Frozen Shoulder is divided into 3 stages

1) Freezing Stage

In Freezing Stage there is pain in joint which aggravates on motion and he range of motion gradually starts decreasing.

2) Frozen Stage

In Frozen Stage the pain is not much as compared to freezing stage but the range of motion is completely diminished so much so that patient can barely move the joint or cant move at all.

3) Thawing Stage

In Thawing Stage pain subsides and range of motion gradually starts improving and complete recovery is established in few weeks.

If it is acted upon quickly in freezing stage with intervention of physiotherapy and proper medication the progress of the disease is arrested and soon resolves completely.


On clinical presentation of symptoms of the patient frozen shoulder can be diagnosed and radiological tests like X-rays, CT scan and MRI may be suggested inrequired cases to find out extent, severity of pathological condition within and also to rule out any other pathological condition within or around shoulder joint.

If along with shoulder joint if there are other joints involved simultaneously or frequently different joints in past then it becomes necessary to rule out other underlying systemic conditions like Rheumatoid ArthritisGout, Ankylosing Spondylosis, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus etc and for that your doctor may suggest blood tests like RA factor, ESR, CRP, ANA, S.uric acid and HLA B27 (where there is severe spinal involvement along with shoulder). Vitamin D should also be checked wether its in optimal range for better recovery.


Treatment of frozen shoulder is based on combination of both Physiotherapy and Medicines.

Physiotherapy plays a major role in cases of frozen shoulder. Physiotherapist takes support of certain modalities, recomends certain exercises and manual physical intervention where in he may exert mild force or pressure along and within the axis of movement of shoulder joint and try to open up the freezed shoulder and gradually retain its laxity and mobility.

Pain may temporarily increase during and  after physical intenvention but with regular recomended exercise and medicines it finally subsides and joint regains its complete range of axis of movement subsequently.


If the frozen shoulder is without any underlying condition specific medicines will work well but if it is secondary to some underlying condition like autoimmune diseases or metabolic disorders or Infections or some other systemic or acute or chronic complaints then constitutional trearment along with initial acute specific remedy may be required.

List of Common Homeopathic Remedies Used in Frozen shoulder

  • Calcarea Flourica
  • Silicea
  • Calcarea Phosphorica
  • Thiosinaminum
  • Rhus Toxicodendron
  • Bryonia Alba
  • Arnica Montana
  • Plantago Major
  • Belladonna
  • Ledum Palusture


Degenerative changes in vertebral bodies and intervertebral disc at the level of L1 to S1 in vertebral cloumn affecting lumbar region of spine is called Lumbar Spondylosis.

It is characterised by degenerative changes of Lumbar vertebral bodies like osteophyte lippings and spur formation, degeneration of  intervertebral disc, narrowing of intervertebral space, Intervertebral disc bulging, intervertebral disc herniation.

It can also be called Osteoarthritis of Lumbar Spine.


Lumbar Spondylosis may be caused due to many factors that can be broadly classified into Mechanical, Congenital or Acquired Anatomic anomalies, Metabolic, Immunologic, Genetic, Nutritional, Ageing and Septic reasons.

Most common of all are ageing and mechanical reasons like excessive wear and tear due to wrong postural habbits, type of work like driving for long duration regularly, sitting for long hours, lifting weights or working with bent posture etc. that exerts much pressure on lumbar spine on regular basis so as to not giving much time to recover again and resulting into accumulation of wear and tear finally damaging the spine and causing lumbar spondylosis.

Metabolic problems like Hyperuricemia/Gout where high level of uric acid in blood damages lumbar spine also this uric acid may get crystalised to form monosodium urate monohydrate and settle in the intervertebral joints and damage them.

Immunologically mediated chronic inflamation in lumbar spine like in Rheumatoid Arthritis, Chickenguniya, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus etc.

Genetic Complaints like Ankylosing Spondylosis etc

Vitamin D deficiency causes reduced calcium assimilation resulting into reduced bone mineral density causing weak bones easy to damage. Insufficient nutrition compared to requirement, which prevents repair work of regular wear and tear of lumbar spine, due to which damages tend to get accumulated resulting into lumbar spondylosis.

Congenital or acquired Anatomical anomalies in musculoskeletal framework that may cause abnormal posture or abnormal weight distribution which results into pressure on spine in wrong fashion gradually facilitates development of Lumbar spondylosis.

Septic Conditions of spine like Tuberculosis of spine may result into lumbar spondylosis due to tissue lysis as result of infection.


  • Pain and Stiffness  in lower back or Lumbar Region.
  • Sciatica due to compression of nerve roots of sciatic nerve.
  • Pain stinging pain in lumbar spine
  • Pain radiating from lumbar spine to lower limbs
  • Paraesthesia in lower back genitals or lower limbs
  • Cramps calfs, thighs and other muscle and muscle groups of lower limbs
  • Difficulty in walking and maintaining posture and balance.
  • Lack of control on urinary spincter or anal spincter resulting into either retention of urine or bowel or involuntary expulsion of urine and bowel
  • Sexual debility Tabes Dorsalis


Myelopathy – When there is damage to spinal cord it causes Myelopathy.

Raduclopathy – compression of nerve near nerve root where it emerges out of spinal cord.

Vertebrobasilar insufficiency – Vertebral artery insufficiency due to its occulusion while it passes through vertebral foremen sue to degenerative changes for lumbar spine causes vertebrobasilar insufficiency leading to death of condrocytes of intervertebral disc and osteophytes starts accumulating and depositing.


  • Clinical symptoms if indicate towards Lumbar spondylosis it can be then confirmed with X ray.
  • MRI and CT scan gives us better imaging which helps  judge and evaluate the extent of damage and condition
  • Myelograph is dye injected while Xray and CTscan this gives detailed shadow to understand even better
  • Electromyography helps evaluate nerve involvement in spondylosis.




Our spine is classified into cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacral regions.

Cervical Spondylosis is condition where in vertebra and intervertebral discs of cervical region undergoes degeneration. 

It is characterised by thinning of intervertebral discs, reduced intervertebral space, osteophyte lipping, spurs formations,  herniation of intervertebral disc, nerve compression etc.

It can also be called osteoarthritis of cervical spine.


This degeneration can be due to various mechanical, immunological, infective, metabolic, genetic, nutritional and age related reasons.

It can be due to one or combination of than one ot the above reasons. Most of the cases are due to ageing and mechanical wear and tear related to abnormal physical exertion and postural habbits.

It is commonly seen in people assuming wrong posture for long hours like lying down with head placed on huge pillow or watching mobile phones or reading books with tilted head for long hours, staying on computer workstation with an arm stretched on mouse or key board for long transfers weight on neck.

When such postural habbits are prolonged for few hours to days its starts inflamatory process in cervival spine and if still prolonged for months to years the prolonged inflamation and mechanical wear and tear results into degeneration of spine.

Many genetic and immune mediated conditions like Rheumatoid arthritis, Ankylosing spondylosis, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Psoriatic Arthritis etc may result into prolonged chronic inflamation of spine ingeneral and gradual degeneration of cervical spine as well resulting into cervical spondylosis.

Metabolic reasons like hyperuricemia may result into deposition of monosodium urate monohydrate crystals into joint spaces in cervical spine resulting into subsequent erosion and degeneration of spine causing cervical spndylosis.

Certain infections in spine like tuberculosis results into degeneration of spine and spondylosis and when it affects cervical region on spine it causes cervical spondylosis.

With ageing there is depletion of anabolic hormones and other factors required for quick repair process which results into slow repair process compared to daily wear and tear and damages tends to accumulate and gradually resulting into erosion and degeneration of spine.

Nutritional deficiencies arised due to lower intake compared to requirement, resulting into lower calcium vitamin D and many other nutrients which not only slows down the repair process to built up damages but also gives rise to low bone mineral density resulting into erosion and degeneration of vertebral bodies.


In initial stages it starts with occasional stiffness and pain in neck lasting few minutes to hours after exertion gradually it starts persisting with pain on extreme range of axis of movement of neck then later even on smaller axis or range of motion of neck patient starts feeling stiffness or pain or discomfort in neck

If not taken care the nerves originating from cervical plexus which emerge out from cervical spine they start getting compressed causing myalgia paraesthesia in neck which may radiate to shoulder and extend upto arm and upto tip of fingers.

In severe cases of cervical spondylosis patient may also experience vertigo nausea vomitting complete loss of balance with pain in neck and gastric derangement as concomittant symptoms


CERVICAL SPONDYLOTIC MYELOPATHY (CSM) – It is caused due injury to spinal cord due to cervical spondylosis.

CERVICAL SPONDYLOTIC RADICULOPATHY – In this the nerve gets pinched and compressed near the nerve root shortly after it leaves spinal cord.

VERTIBROBASILAR INSUFFICIENCY – When vertebral artery which is passing through vertebral formen gets occluded and deprives chondrocytes of intervertebral disc from circulation as a result the die and weaken intervertebral disc and osteophytes starts settling in.


Cervical Compression Test – When the neck is tilted laterally and applied downward pressure patient feels pain on ipsilateral side in neck or shoulder , its not conclusive but indicative and qualifies case for further radiological investigations

Lhermitte’s Sign – Electrict Shock like pain on flexion of neck

These patients general show reduced range of motion of n

Based on clinical symptoms patient may be sent for X ray  for ascertaining the diagnosis.

MRI and CT Scan helps to further find out extent and severity of damage to spine.

Myelography is done with dye injection in spinal cord during CT or X ray for more detailed radiological imaging

Electromyography and Nerve Conduction Test helps to find out involvement of nerve and nerve damage and extent of nerve injury.


Guidlines to patients on maintaining correct posture, avoid jerk and strain to secure neck is of utmost importance in management of cervical spondylosis patients.

Proper calcium intake sufficient exposure to sunlight for vitamin D. Increased protein, vitamin B12 and iron intake.

Exercise like pranayam and walk helps stimulate hormone secretion and thus facilitating absorption and assimilation of nutrients required for repair and rebuilding the worn and damaged tissues and to increase bone mineral density.

Mild gentle exercise of neck helps increase local blood flow and keep tissue supple and stimulate its growth and strenght but if not done under proper guidance of qualified physiotherapist it may further injure the already damaged tissue. So if proper qualified physiotherapist is not available to guide its safer bet not to exercise neck region involving cervical spine on your own and giving it complete rest and let it recover on its own while still continueing with walk and pranayam regularly.













INSOMNIA – Sleep Management Schedule – Get Rid Of Sleeping Pills

Sleep Management schedule is designed to help insomnia patients who have difficulty in falling asleep or difficulty in maintaining state of sleep. It helps to avoid sleeping pills and to  tapper down the dose of sleeping pills and stop it completely in those who are already on sleeping pills. In complicated cases Homeopathic remedies may be required in conjunction with this sleep management schedule as a supportive measure.



  • We only need to have to fix time to wake and let the body decide the sleeping time then!
  • Set an alarm 15 minutes earlier than your regular time that you wake up every morning, regardless of what time you had went to sleep at night.
  • Step out of bed as soon as you wake up in morning.
  • Morning walk is beneficial if do not have time in morning make it in evening before sunset.
  • Have nutritious breakfast in morning.
  • Have curds after Lunch.
  • Do not sleep in day time, regardless of wether you have slept at night or not.
  • Do not miss evening snacks.
  • Stop all stimulants and caffeinated drinks after 5pm.
  • Brisk walk for an hour is recomended in evening if missed in morning.
  • Dinner should be not too heavy not too light just filling.
  • Dinner should be taken ideally 1 hour before desired time to sleep after which one can go for a stroll outside for 10-15minutes.
  • Make sure all the meals you have throughout the day are not spicy, oily or made up of maida or bakery products.
  • Have a mix of papaya and pineapple 200gms approx after meals. Pineapple helps balance out serotonine levels and this induce sleep and papaya helps to mellow down the hyperacidity forming tendency of pineapple also both of them are rich in fibres pineapple has soluble and insoluble fibres and papaya has lots of soluble fibres so mixing both gives you blend of both soluble and insoluble fibres helping digestion as well, giving lighter feeling to stomach throughout the night.
  • One should not lie down atleast 1 hour after any meal.
  • Consume 2 liters of water throughout the day and stop water intake 1 hour prior to desired time to sleep.
  • Stop watching bright screens like Television screen or mobile and laptop screens or listenimg to loud music atleast 2 hours prior to desired time to sleep.
  • Make sure you have bed and room exclusively meant for sleeping, the room should be completely silent and dark if not then change to thicker curtains to prevent outside light entering your room and thicker window glass to prevent outside noise entering your bedroom.
  • We spend 1/3rd of our life sleeping on bed, so make sure its very much comfortable all your pillow, mattress, bedsheet etc. change them to new if you find them uncomfortable.
  • Don’t do any activity like reading writting listening music etc on bed excpet sleeping, bed should be used exclisively to sleep during the course of sleep management, so that by the end of this course the brain gets trained to feel sleepy soon on touch and feel of bed.
  • Do not enter bed untill you are feeling too sleepy.
  • Even after entering bed if you are not able to fall asleep then try keeping all your neck shoulder and  facial muscles relaxed while attempting to sleep.
  •  Do not try too hard to fall asleep, rather get out of the bed and involve yourself into small activity which doesn’t consume much of time eg. reading a small news papper article is recomended but not the novel. Enter bed again soon after you start feeling sleepy.
  • Certain fragrances are known to help induce sleep, I recomend lavender oil. Mix lavender oil with coconut oil in ratio of 1:10 and then can be apploed on scalp, or alternatively, lavender oil can be applied on handkerchief and placed near or beneath head while sleep as its known to calm mind and induce sleep.
  • A cup of warm milk before bed with very little quantity of jaifal and turmeric boiled in it, helps to induce sleep.
  • Get your Serum Vitamin B12 and Iron levels tested and start suppliments if the levels are depleted.

Usually results are expected within 2-10 days but in cases those who are not finding results and your sleep cycle is not restored then along with above sleep management schedule you can go for homeopathic supportive medicines under advise of registered homeopathic practitioner.





Lifestyle Diseases and Role of Homeopathy.

Firstly let us understand what lifestyle means,

Lifestyle means a pattern of individual practices and personal behavioral choices or in a more simpler way we can describe lifestyle as “the way people live”, i.e day to day habits of an individual.

What Are Lifestyle Diseases or Disorders?

The diseases which primarily arises from the abnormal lifestyle of a person are grouped under the term lifestyle diseases or disorders.

Adopting an unhealthy lifestyle pattern leads to increase in both physical and mental diseases.

Lifestyle diseases too have become an epidemic and causes much greater public threat than any other epidemic.

It is seen that almost every 2nd individual suffer from some kind of lifestyle diseases.

Unfortunately, these lifestyle diseases are no longer restricted to people in their forties and fifties but has affecting the young adult zone and children as well.

Incidence And Causes Of Lifestyle Disorders

It is in practice that more than 30% of Indians over 30 years of age or even below 30 are suffering from one or more lifestyle diseases.

In our day to day life it is seen that, there are always deadlines, office or work pressure, family pressure, due dates and many other priorities. Thus due to this continous busy schedule and tension our mind and body are exhausted and we do not usually get the requied rest.

The risk of developing lifestyle disorder depends on various factors including the kind of work one does, the environment where the person lives, the type of food he consumes and various unavoidable stressful situations.

The World health organisation identifies following as major risk factors for developing lifestyle disorders.

  • Improper Diet
  • Stress
  • Lack of Physical Activity
  • Disturbed Biological Clock
  • Alcoholism
  • Smoking


Present or current scenario of technological advancements, globalisation, consumerism, substance abuse, disturbed family life, stress, competative working pattern have a severe impact on the health of an individual.

When we consider each of the lifestyle diseases in our daily practice we see a huge number of population are restricted to thier gadgets (cell phones, laptops, computers) and hence are always in their comfort zone. They are usually unaware about how harmful the use of technology is and how it is having a negative impact on their daily life. They are only aware of its adverse effects when their body starts showing the symptoms.

Let us see how some of the factors which are affecting health.

Prolonged use of laptops, cellphones, computers, continous watching of televison, may lead to spondylosis causing neck pain along with pain in the spine, trapezitis, tendinitis, trigger thumb, carpel tunnel syndrome, sciatica, strain on eyes, along with headache, fatigue, exhaustion, etc.

Prolong standing or wrong sitting posture gives strain on the backbone and causes chronic back pain. Also sitting for long induces continuous pressure on posterior aspect of thighs and hips which are largest muscle group of our body and almost centrally located this obliterates blood vessel on a very significant region of body thus disturbing the blood flow and circulatory pressure and pattern giving rise to engorged vessels in ano-rectal region and coccyxgodynia due to pressure on tissue and lack of circulation causing damage around coccyx. Not only this the circulatory disturbance of this scale due to pressure on significantly large part of body for prolonged period of time also gives rise to low tissue perfussion of blood in the dependent part that are compressed due to pressure in sitting posture, so then there is compensatory increase blood pressure to make sufficient tissue perfussion of blood where ever the blood vessels are compressed due to seated posture and mechanical pressure compression, this leads to high blood pressure.

Radiations generated by cellphones, and heat generated by laptop have adverse effect on the fertility.

People working against the biological clock, working continously on computers causing insomnia, and gastric disturbances.

Not to mention the addiction and psychological stress prosuced sue to social sites and unhealth mind again leads to unhealthy body.


It is usually seen that the onset of lifestyle disorders is insidious, it may take years to develop one.

But once these disorders are detected there has to be a total vigilance in the way of life along with proper medication and treatment for the same.

In present generation Stress tops the chart of causation of many diseases like obesity, diabetes, hypertension, cancers, etc.

Not that stress was never present in our ancestors in the past, but it was combated with stress busters like spending time with family and friends, excercising, meditation, etc., in present generation mankind had distanced self from all this stress busters and are more influenced by technology.

Few Common Lifestyle Disorders Are


Imbalance in energy utilisation and storage, as a result of disturbances in multiple physiological functioning, especially insulin resistance considered as a major contributing factor which results into metabolic syndrome which presents itself with collection of signs like Hyperglycemia, Central Obesity Hypertension, Dyslipidemia – High Triglycerides and Low HDL.

Lifestyle factors like Stress, disturbed chronobiology, improper diet, frequent consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, alcoholism substance abuse or psychotropic and certain other longterm medications, sedendary life, and definately genetics play major role in development of metabolic syndrome.

Indis has been ranked as second higest nation to have huge number of obese individuals. Obesity is a very fatal condition which makes an individual more vulnerable to lifestyle disorders. Obesity is one of the important disorder caused due to sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy eating habits, reduced physical activity, stressful life etc.


Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder. It is a complex condition in which the blood sugar levels are raised for a long period of time either because of inadequacy of insulin production or lack of body cell responses to insulin. Diabetes is also a result of age, stress, sedentary lifestyle, obesity etc.


Hypertension is a term used for a condition of body in which the blood pressure is higher than the normal. Its one of the common lifestyle disorder. Various causes related to hypertension mainly stress, sedentary lifestyle, increased salt intake.

Basically Hypertension in most of the cases is a compensatory mechanism of the body which is brought in place by body to counter reduced tissue perfussion of blood caused due to obesity lack of exercise and wrong postures where circulation is obliterated of a larger area due to pressure for long period like sitting in almost same posture  for long or lying in almost same posture for long; Or in posture where dependent parts are not moved for longer period of time causing difficulty in circulation due gravity like standing for prolonged period or hanging limbs for prolonged period of time.

Salt restriction, regular excercise, proper diet, decrease stress help to manage hypertension.


Any abnormality or irregularity which affects the heart muscles and blood vessel walls can be refered to as heart disease. Elevated level of cholestrol and triglycerides are major markers for heart diseases.
There is a huge number of population in India who suffer from cardiovascular diseases. Again it is one of the lifestyle disorder sedentary habits, stress, increased level of cholestrol, improper diet are some of the reasons for cardiovascular diseases.


Due to stressfull lifestyle we lead, there is decrease in immunity of our body, WBC’s loose thier power to fight the viruses that enter our body. Ther may be an irregular cell growth which can be concluded as carcinoma when diagnosed appropriately.


In present practice we notice a huge number of population suffering from reccurent respiratory tract infections. It may be worsend due to continous influence to body to abnoxious agents, may be occupational harmful chemical exposures, prolong use of antihistamines anticold cough medicines, habit of smoking has a very severe impact on health which leads to various repiratory diseases.


Due to sedentary lifetsyle, decreased physical activity, obesity and improper diet many other causes leads to various joint complaints like arthritis,rheumatoid arthitis, gout etc.


Stress and anxiety trigger a number of lifestyle disorders. Continous worry stress, family tensions, work pressure, health concerns, unemployment, love failures have a direct impact on the mental or emotional health of the person. Continous stress worry leads to anxiety neurosis and depression.

Along with the above mentioned lifestyle disorders there are various other diseases which directly or indirectly have an impact on the health of an individual due to lifestyle.


Homoeopathy plays a very significant role in the management of lifestyle disorders.

Lifestyle disorders are a threat to the socio economic aspect of nation globally and appropriate actions for their management are the need for the moment.

Management of lifestyle diseases include proper diagnosis and treatment for the same.

Homoeopathy has a major role to play in the management of present day lifestyle diseases.

Homoepathy medicines strengthens the immunity of the body to fight against pathogens. They act on much deeper level both at physical and emotional health.

Homeopathy is a complete system of medicine discovered by a German physician Dr Samuel Hahneman.

Dr Hahneman highlights the importance of healthy lifestyle. He advises to remove all influences which hinder cure.
According to him hinderances to the cure of chronic diseases are exccesive hardships, laboring, grief, hunger, poverty, sudden death of loved ones etc. He advised to avoid sedentary life that interferes with health.

In case of lifestyle disorders Homoepathic management include a detailed individualised study of the patient. A constitutional medicine is selected based on individualised approach. A holistic approach towards each case really helps to give wonderful results.


A healthy lifestyle should be adopted to combat life style disorders.

Health rests on three pillars

  1. DIET
  3. REST

If any one of above three is disturbed the health will fall


There is a well known proverb in ayurveda that says

” If your diet is not proper, no medicines will work


If your diet is proper then no medicines will be required.”

Diet rich in fiber and nutients, fresh fruits, vegetables should be a regular part of meal.
Avoid skipping meals.,junk food, fatty food, aerated drinks as they do no good but just harm the body in many ways.


Exercise helps improve circulation and secrete ample of anabolic hormones thus wash off metabolites and other harmful substances from body.

The root cause of most of the lifestyle disorders is obesity. It is really importamt to maintain a ideal body weight. Regular exercise, brisk walk, yoga help to comabat many diseases


Stress Management

Proper hormone flow depends much on balanced mind as its optimal balance is dependent on a very delicate Hypothalamo-Pitutary-Hormonal Axis. Which is much dependent on psychological wellbeing and vice-a-versa.

Proper guidance and counselling to combat stress. Involve in recreational activities which help to relieve stress. Practice yoga, music therapy, maintain a balance between work and family., proper balanced food with adequate sleep.

Adequate Sleep

Most of the hormones and other repair mediators within body are secreted most abaundantly during and deeper the sleep better the repair work in body.

Continous and undisturbed sleep of 7 to 8 hours helps to solve many health issues.